This response is not specific to this article.
There have been numerous studies on the putative relation between alcohol
consumption and cardiovascular disease.
I have, of course, not read them all.
That said I have yet to read any that explore the pathological synergy
that must exist between alcohol consumption and passive smoking.
The colder the climate the more likely it is that those who are heavy
consumers of alcohol are also heavy passive smokers.
The reasons for this are obvious and should not require elaboration.
I look forward to research that controls for this major confounding
variable - not just with respect to cardiovascular disease, but also with
regard to malignancies of the upper airway and digestive tract.
Competing interests: No competing interests