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History And Mystery
# Retroactive prayer: a preposterous hypothesis?

BMJ
2003;
327
doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7429.1465
(Published 18 December 2003)
Cite this as: BMJ 2003;327:1465

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## Alice hypothesis= alternating type IIA and IIB string theories?

Professor Leonard Finegold suggested that, "to posit “beyond the

superstring theories”... [was]...to go out on a limb". It may indeed be

unnecesary to go any further than string theory.

There are said to be five string theories which have common features.

Hence the term M-theory, M standing for mother, magic, matrix of anything

alse that might take a theoretical physicist's fancy. Holographic theory

is a refinement that incorporates Hawking's very important observation

that the information lost as radiation from a black hole is a function of

the surface area of its event horizon.

According to Brian Greene, the string theorist from Columbia, the

mathematical embodiments of type IIA and type IIB strng theories are

equally successful and differ only in their expressions of geometry. The

type IIA geometry is a circular surface area, possibly as large as 10 to

the 66 sq cm, currently calculated to be 10 to the 61 Planck lengths or

15 billion light years wide. That is the width of the entire universe. The

type IIB geometry is a "snippet" or isolted segment of string with a

surface area, possibly as small as 10 to the minus 66 sq cm, currently

calculated to be 10 to the minus 61 Planck lengths wide.

Put in another way type IIA surface area is proportional and type

IIB inversely proportional or the reciprocal of the radius of the

original. The radius in type IIA is also proportional to its energies,

which are also large, and in type IIB inversely proportional and,

therefore, extremely small ie. of the order of the size of the smallest of

particles. In other words type IIA string theory appears to be the

mathematical formulation of the bosonic phase of existence in the Alice

hypothesis and type IIB to the fermionic phase of existence. In which case

the Alice hypothesis may resolve what is said to be the greatest unsolved

problem in string theory, background-independent formulation. This

conclusion is also consistent with the Calabi-Yau geometries in which one

is the mirror image or dual of the original and has a different number of

holes in it. These geometries appear to me to explain what we can see and

measure.

String theory evolved from particle physics and has sought to

incorporate gravity, as gravitrons, in attempting to reconcile quantum

theory with Einstein's theory of general relativity. Loop quantum gravity,

the competing hypothesis, has evolved from general relativity and from an

attempt to reconcile it with quantum theory. In so doing it has retained

Einstein's curved spacetime as its geometry. Hence spacetime being

illustrated as a twisted pretzel in Hawking's, "the universe in a

nutshell" and Einstein-Rosen bridges and wormholes short-circuiting

pretzel loops to provide a theoretical basis for time travel.

I believe Steven Hawking and George Ellis initiated this approach,

one which has since been REFINED by Lee Smolin. There does not appear to

be a mathematical formation that has been developed along these lines that

can account for the alternating bosonic and fermionic phases of existence

proposed in the Alice hypothesis.

I am lead to conclude, from my readings of the popular science

literature, that the theory of everything (TOE) will evolved from types

IIA and IIB string theories. I am further lead to conclude that spacetime

is not curved and that the bending of light, first observed by Sir Arthur

Eddington, might be an illusion caused by the effects of gravity on

fermionic expressions of light waves as they pass through a gravitonal

field in which there are frozen particles capable of stopping the photons,

as has been demonsrated experimentally, and changing the direction of

their passage which resumes at its original velocity.

Hawking's fanciful illustrations of the shape of spacetime may ,

therefore, be interpreted as a reduction ad absurdum and evidence

supporting the validity of string theories IIA and IIB and of the Alice

hypothesis. In which case the predictions made in terms of the Alice

hypothesis, incuding those concerning consciousness, need to be taken

seriously.

Brain Greene. The elegant universe.

,

Competing interests:

None declared

Competing interests:No competing interests10 March 2004