This guideline summary provides recommendations for people already taking statins and people intolerant to statins for reducing cardiovascular risk with two lipid-lowering drugs
Our infographics are a new initiative at The BMJ. We know that you, our readers, are increasingly time-pressured, so we aim for them to include some carefully selected information from an article, highlighting the key messages. We hope that you find them quick and easy to use, and that they also help you to remember the information they contain.
BMJ infographics are reviewed by the authors, our technical and section editors and with some the peer reviewers before publication, and we're confident that they are accurate representations of the article. At the time of going to press, we make every effort to ensure that the information held in them is up-to-date. However, because of their innovative nature, we add disclaimers to them, to remind our readers that the information contained should be treated with the same caution as written articles. The graphics are often a summary of a summary - they shouldn't be taken to be the whole of the information available on the subject. Rare conditions/complications/etc will sometimes be excluded.
While our infographics are not validated decision aids that have been extensively tested on clinicians or patients, we want them to be useful to readers in summarising recommendations or evidence. If you have any comments about their usability, we'd be glad to hear.
This guideline summary provides recommendations for people already taking statins and people intolerant to statins for reducing cardiovascular risk with two lipid-lowering drugs
This series of graphs shows the number of reported cases, tests, hospital admissions, and vaccinations in Danish children and adolescents between Mar 2020 and Nov 2021. It also indicates when testing became more widely available and when asymptomatic testing of school children was encouraged.
This BMJ rapid recommendation covers plasma exchange and glucocorticoid dosing for patients with Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. It suggests plasma exchange should be reserved for people with moderate to high risk of developing end stage kidney disease within a year.
Five strategies for clinicians to consider to achieve diagnostic excellence and reduce diagnostic error in their practice
Data on vaccination rates by country paints a stark picture of how far Africa still has to go in defending itself against covid-19.
This graphic offers a step-by step approach to assessing the most urgent and common conditions that could be affecting a patient with this presentation. Several of these are time-critical, and timely referral to the right specialty will expedite the most appropriate care for the patient
Some patients would like to fast during Ramadan, but have existing conditions that might be exacerbated by doing so. This graphic provides a quick overview that summarises what to cover during a pre-Ramadan consultation with such patients.
The latest update to the WHO living guideline includes a redesigned graphical summary. As well as presenting treatments by disease severity, this version also organises them by strength of recommendation.
A potted guide to the hazards of holiday foliage. This graphic suggests that it would be best to refrain from consumption of foliage, ornamental household plants or unidentified wild species and berries over the festive period and beyond
Try your hand at recognising which titles are from past papers in The BMJ Christmas edition, and which have been generated by an algorithm programmed to generate new titles
This graphic presents a new dataset of head injuries occurring in popular nursery rhymes, including coded information that could inform the authors of future nursery rhymes and decrease the likelihood of head injuries for literary characters
A flow-diagram assisted checklist that assists researchers with precision reporting for underwhelming studies, underscoring ways of reporting underdeveloped methods and underachieving efforts.
This graphic simulates two people meeting, and what they can do to reduce the risk of catching covid-19. The colours show how much infectious virus is likely to be passed on, based on the best estimates of 26 international experts.
The climate emergency is forcing the medical community to think beyond care for individual patients - expanding our duty of care to protecting the Earth’s natural systems on which intergenerational health and wellbeing depend. This graphic presents twelve strategies as examples of the changes to health systems which are now needed in towns and cities across the world.
A country’s covid-19 vaccine manufacturing base is now seen as a key factor in its ability to vaccinate its population. This graphic shows which countries produce covid-19 vaccines, and reveals that many of these have been able to vaccinate more of their population than comparable countries.
This graphic gives an overview of the evidence for treatment of covid-19 with antibody and cellular treatments that is published to date, and will be updated regularly as more trials are published
Most patients with a stoma will have a good idea about how to manage minor issues but may present to primary care with emergency complications. This graphic presents seven common complications, and offers a quick summary of management strategies and when to refer patients to the surgical team.
First line topical and oral treatment options for managing acne vulgaris, from the new NICE guideline, summarising advantages and disadvantages of 6 different combination therapies
Offering a trial of non-inhaled medical cannabis or cannabinoids is suggested in this rapid recommendation, for people with moderate to severe chronic pain, if standard care is not sufficient
Wealthy countries stand accused of wasting lifesaving vaccines that are reaching their expiry dates. This graphic shows the number of surplus doses due to expire by the end of 2022 in the 10 locations with the worst potential problems.
The first four covid-19 variants of concern have spread with alarming rapidity around the globe. This short animation tracks their progress from country to country from September 2020 to July 2021.
In subacute small bowel obstruction or chronic large bowel obstruction the history and the physical ﬁndings may be subtle. This graphic shows how some of the common symptoms and signs overlap. Considering them together can help to determine the most likely types, position, and causes of bowel obstruction.
Nearly half of the 253 drugs authorised via the US Food and Drug Administration "accelerated approval pathway" have not been confirmed as clinically effective. This graphic shows details of The BMJ's investigation, particularly focussing on the 24 drugs that have been on the market for five or more years.
This calculator demonstrates how interpreting a covid-19 lateral flow device result varies according to the pre-test probability, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test used.
Facial dermatoses can be caused by use of personal protective equipment such as face masks. This graphic presents common facial distributions and extra-facial involvement that can be used as a starting point for assessment of facial eruptions.
A set of interactive charts showing estimates for 27 countries.
A clinical practice guideline comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP -1 receptor agonists for adults with type 2 diabetes. The drugs are recommended only for people with higher risk of cardiovascular or renal disease.
A visual overview of the evidence for covid-19 prophylaxis that is published to date. This graphic summarises a living network meta-analysis of published trials, and will be updated regularly as more are published
Tips for effective online consultations, including when to reply using with written responses, and advice for writing them
Summarising the evidence for drugs that may prevent covid-19 infection when given as a prophylactic treatment. This graphic presents the key points from a WHO living guideline, supported by a living network meta-analysis.
This graphic shows the main tests needed to monitor for adverse effects occuring during long term treatment with immunomodulatory agents for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or psoriasis
An overview of the 2020 update to NICE guidance on acute coronary syndrome. The graphic highights new additions to the guidance.
An interactive tool to explore data from Sweden on heritability of medicine as an occupation. The graphic also shows how the legal profession compares in terms of how frequently relatives have the same occupation as their children.
An anatomic framework for scholars to contextualise authorship roles and provide guidance on authorship function
Try your hand at mixing up some marvellous "medicines" and see their likely toxic impacts on the human body
This graphic shows some characteristics of healthy cities, and reveals which of these are particular challenges for dry cities. It also summarizes six policies that aim to address some of these characteristics
Adversity in the first years of life may deleteriously affect the course of human development. This graphic shows the wide range of possible consequences throughout the lifetime of children suffering adverse experiences in their early years.
This graphic introduces six strategies for intervening in the complex network of connections around climate change and infectious disease
A guide to positive clinical features that may indicate functional neurological disorders in primary care, including common diagnostic pitfalls
A living clinical practice guideline comparing drugs with standard care for people with covid-19. The guidelines will be updated as new evidence is published.
A calculator showing the expected number of people with positive or negative antibody test results that have or have not had covid-19, based on adjustable inputs for underlying disease prevalence and test accuracy.
An approach to managing patients with long-term symptoms following illness with covid-19, focussing on primary care management. Including information on assessment, management, and referral.
A clinical practice guideline comparing remdesivir with standard care for people with severe covid-19. The guideline gives a weak recommendation in favour of remdesivir
A visual overview of the evidence for covid-19 treatments that is published to date. This graphic summarises a living network meta-analysis of published trials, and will be updated regularly as more are published
An overview of different types of non-invasive respiratory support available outside of the intensive care unit, or for people not suitable for full invasive ventilation.
Tests for covid-19, like any diagnostic test, are not 100% accurate. This calculator shows the expected number of people with positive or negative test results with or without covid-19, based on adjustable inputs for underlying disease prevalence and test accuracy.
A timeline of the government response to covid-19 in 7 countries, and the size of the corresponding outbreaks. Countries like the UK and Italy were slow to act and have seen much more severe impacts.
Summarising the April 2020 UK government guidance on use of PPE when treating people with covid-19 in healthcare settings
A summary of evidence on the effectiveness of gabapentinoids for relief of neuropathic pain, including adverse events
A quick guide to assessing patients with suspected covid-19 by video or voice call, including strategies for connecting, taking a history, examination, and reaching a decision on actions to take.
Visualising the complicated network of relationships between those lobbying for greater availability of cannabis for medical and recreational use.
How to identify potential new cases of COVID-19 and either isolate patients to reduce onward transmission or refer safely to the hospital if severely unwell.
Differentiating cellulitis from other causes of red legs in primary care.
A tool that can be used to compare lab test results, according to the statistical likelihood of analytic and biologic variation. One or two values can be entered to compare results to normal ranges and to show whether the second result is outside the "reference change value" of the first.
The data behind hip replacement surgery shows very little difference between NHS and private providers. Compare the two with this interactive graphic.
A clinical practice guideline comparing different options for preventing gastrointestinal bleeding for critically ill patients. The guideline recommends using acid suppression prophylaxis only for people with higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
This GOfER (graphical overview for evidence reviews) summarises the evidence available for different medical, surgical and conservative management options for early miscarriage
Which specialty is caught speeding most often? Find out in this interactive graphic, which combines data from speeding tickets in Florida with publicly available data on physician characteristics, to put several such age old questions to rest
With the UK health sercive a fundamental issue in many elections, it is perhaps not surprising to see doctors in the running to become members of parliament. This graphic shows the 56 medical doctors that we have identified that stood in the 2019 general election.
Being born in spring or summer is associated with higher CVD risk. This graphic presents data showing this association by month and season of birth
A visual representation of the mood of medical interns over a 3 year period, showing the impact of political and non-political events.
Details what ablation therapy entails before, during, and after surgery, including the potential benefits and risks.
Summarises the results of two studies published simultaneously in The BMJ, which investigate how frequently screening for colorectal cancer should be performed, and the rates of falsely negative tests.
There are four main types of emollients, and little evidence is available to recommend one type over another. This graphic explains reasons why patients might prefer one over another, and the importance of considering trade offs between effectiveness and acceptability.
Highlighting changes in the updated 2019 NICE guidance, this graphic shows the new recommendations for diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults, and in which ways the guidance has changed.
Showing the predictive value of blood tests for cancers, the quality of evidence and background population levels of specific cancers.
A clinical practice guideline comparing no screening, Faecal testing, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy for detecting colorectal cancer in healthy adults aged 50 or over. The guideline recommends assessing individual people's risks with an online calculator to inform the decision about whether to screen or not.
An approach to helping distressed patients make manageable changes that can lead them to more positive behaviours.
Migration is a key area for political discussion, but the health needs of migrants are often overlooked. This scrolling story shows how migrants often fall through the cracks of health systems, and calls for more research on migrants and their wellbeing.
An approach to assessing vertigo symptoms in primary care, including which conditions can be managed in the community, and when to refer.
Summarising updated NICE guidance on monitoring and assessment of women with hypertension and pre-eclampsia, including when to admit or refer.
Diabetes indicence was rising until the turn of the milennium, but we may be starting to see a decline. This graphic shows this reversal, based on 61 populations identified in published literature between 1970 and 2014.
A comprehensive overview of the health impacts of the UK leaving the European Union without a withdrawal agreement - a so-called “no deal” scenario.
Expaining the trends in birth rates after introduction of China’s universal two child policy, announced in October 2015. This graphic also shows changes in births on nulliparous and multiparous births, and age of mothers giving birth.
An interactive guide to fertility awareness based methods of contraception, which allow couples to avoid unintended pregnancy by timing intercourse according to a range of different biomarkers. This graphic compares relative effectiveness of fertility awareness with traditional contraceptives, and explains the different features of several methods.
An evidence summary of published papers on quadruple versus triple combination antiretroviral therapies for people living with HIV. This is a GOfER diagram (Graphical Overview for Evidence Reviews), a way of giving a quick overview of the characteristics and findings of trials within a systematic review.
The second year of data has been released, which reveals the the difference in earnings between men and women. This scrolling piece shows which NHS organisations in England have changed, for better or worse, in the last year.
Our latest rapid recommentation against thyroid hormone therapy for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The drill-down graphic explains our reasoning behind the recommentation, in terms of the impacts on patient outcomes, practical issues and preferences and values.
Visualising the financial flows for 29 Conservative MPs linked financially, directly or indirectly, to the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA)
Showing the UK’s spending on health and social care (a grand total of nearly £208bn). This comes from two main sources, public (£157.6bn) and private (£44.9bn), and eventually flows through to various types of care: inpatient care, home based care, prevention, and medical goods, for example
An interactive tool for diagnosis of chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting. Select symptoms and signs to see the linked conditions
An overview of 16 treatments for depression, ranging from mild to severe and including relapse prevention measures
Chiari malformations present with a wide range of symptoms. This visual summary presents the symptoms observed in a series of 364 patients.
A visual summary of the “milestones” from six different sections of the NHS Long Term Plan. Will the next 10 years be a picture as rosy as it is painted in the report?
A map showing the wide variation in funding sources across England for GP services. Quality incentive payments now account for less than 10% of GP practice income.
An A4-sized printable information leaflet for patients, which includes information about the iliotibial band syndrome, and instructions for activities and stretches to aid return to exercise.
US states with more permissive gun laws had higher rates of mass shootings, as shown on this map infographic.
Advice on management of suspected pertussis, including chemoprophylaxis, exclusion, and diagnostic testing.
Summary of recommendation against subacromial decompression surgery, including comparison of benefits and harms, practical issues, and patient values and preferences.
Summarising the evidence behind our strong recommendation in favour of dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel for acute high risk transient ischaemic attack and minor ischaemic stroke. Includes comparison of benefits and harms, key practical issues, and recommended duration of therapy.
When to start and when to stop oxygen therapy in acutely ill medical patients. This graphic summarises our recommendations, including comparison of benefits and harms, practical issues, and patient values and preferences.
The BMJ's first GOfER diagram (Graphical Overview for Evidence Reviews). It gives a visual summary of the studies included in a systematic review of the impact of breakfast on weight loss and energy consumption.
A visual summary of treatment options for seven common dermatological causes of vulvar itch, including levels of evidence.
An interactive graphic showing the benefit and harm of common cold treatments in adults and children, based on avaliable evidence. Systematic review data was available for treatments such as decongestants, antihistamines, analgesics, intranasal corticosteroids, herbal remedies, and vitamins and minerals (zinc).
Doctors from ethnic minority backgrounds working in some roles are paid thousands of pounds less a year than their white colleagues. This infographic displays some of these statistics, using data from NHS digital.
Acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs) are characterised by fever of less than two weeks duration without organ-specific symptoms at the onset. This quick guide provides an approach to the diagnosis of common AUFIs in tropical and subtropical regions.
This guide explores ways in which to diagnose skin problems around the eyes, which can often be challenging to diagnose because of a wide differential. It can be useful to combine information from a focused history of the rash with a detailed examination.
In a BMJ Christmas research paper, a team of researchers set out to measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals from full service and fast food restaurants in five countries and compare results against with US data. This visualisation explores these relationships between meals and energy content.
In 1662 John Graunt published an analysis of the records of deaths (“burials”) and births (“christenings”) in London. The rather plain looking pamphlet contained large tables of figures, from records collected weekly by parish clerks from 1629 to 1660. Causes of death included “King’s Evil,” “falling sickness” or simply “found dead in street.” This infographic explores these deaths and looks at the illnesses and diseases that commonly arose in 17th century London.
It's a well known trope that many doctors spend Wednesday afternoon on the golf course - but how well founded is this stereotype?
A visual summary presenting a practical approach to initial management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, looking at initial assessments, resuscitation, and risk stratification.
An infographic detailing features which suggest different aetiologies for male factor infertility. A careful history and physical examination will allow identification of risk factors and possible causes.
A visual comparison of adverse events taken from vaccine pharmacovigilance reports compiled by GSK (GlaxoSmithKline) during the 2009 H1N1 'swine flu' outbreak, detailing events for three of the companies pandemic influenza vaccines.
What is the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in prostate cancer? An expert panel produced new recommendations based on a linked systematic review, which found no difference between one-time PSA screening and standard practice in prostate cancer mortality but found an increase in the detection of low risk prostate cancer after a median follow-up of 10 years. This infographic provides an overview of the absolute benefits and harms of PSA screening.
A visual summary of our recent study following trends in life expectancy across high income countries, showing how US life expectancy is lagging behind other rich countries, which citizens are affected, and the causes of death that have risen most sharply in recent years.
This graphic presents new estimates of the person hours needed, by different levels of medical staff, for safe care in UK hospitals.
Do corticosteroids reduce death or improve recovery in people with sepsis or septic shock? Our panel make a weak recommendation to give corticosteroids to people with all types and severity of sepsis, based on new evidence. Because we are not certain that they are beneficial, it is also reasonable not to prescribe them. This main infographic provides an overview of the absolute benefits and harms.
Should cryptogenic stroke be managed with patent foramen ovale closure, antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation therapy? This rapid recommendation interactive graphic compares the three options. Each of the three recommendations can be expanded to see details of impact for multiple outcomes.
This graphic summarises NHS England’s recommendation to stop routine use of some interventions. They say that these treatments either have inconclusive evidence of usefulness (category 1), or should be done only when specific clinical criteria are met (category 2).
While food and nutrition have been studied for centuries, modern nutritional science is surprisingly young. This timeline shows how developments in the early 20th Century have persistently shaped our understanding of the field, at times limiting our knowledge of the complex links between dietary patterns and health.
This infographic summarises NICE guidance on drugs that can be offered as a part of treatment for people with the most common forms of dementia. An individualised approach is necessary owing to the wide variety of symptoms faced by each person with dementia.
The term “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease” (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of pathologic conditions, ranging from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and cirrhosis. This flow diagram offers a pragmatic approach to the diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD in asymptomatic adult patients.
This suggested trauma team timeline is based on a combination of guidance from expert opinion and experience of UK emergency departments. It aims to help clinicians familiarise themselves with the basic principles of organizing and responding as a trauma team, and the central role of the trauma team leader.
Hearing loss is common—Over 9 million people in England have hearing loss and this is increasing with the ageing population. This infographic summarises the most recent recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) on the assessment and management of hearing loss in adults, focusing on those areas of most relevance to primary and community care.
Is the needle tip configuration important when performing a lumbar puncture for any indication? A systematic review published in the Lancet in December 2017 suggests that it is. The BMJ Rapid Recommendations panel makes a strong recommendation for the use of atraumatic needles for lumbar puncture in all patients regardless of age (adults and children) or indication instead of conventional needles, and this infographic provides an overview of the absolute benefits and harms (although none were present here) of atraumatic needles.
Chronic orofacial pain (lasting more than 12 weeks) can be debilitating for patients. After this time, primary care treatments have often been exhausted. This infographic focuses on the characteristics and associated features of facial pain, and the potential next steps in each case.
Psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and anxiety are common, but often neglected complications of cancer. These most commonly arise from a patient's psychological reactions to diagnosis, treatment, relapse, end of life care, or survivorship, although direct biological effects of certain treatments and tumour types can also give rise to symptoms of depression or anxiety.
Dressings for venous ulcers can help symptom control and promote healing. This visual summary looks at the differing choices of dressing that can be selected when assessing wounds.
This graphic summarises recent NICE guidance on the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of Lyme disease, considering recommended initial courses and further additional courses for patients with ongoing symptoms.
Hip pain in young adults can be severe and disabling, affecting work, parenting, and leisure activities. This infographic seeks to differentiate between the differering causes of hip pain.
Five new medical schools have been created in England under government plans to increase medical student numbers in England. This summary looks at the locations, demand and place numbers at both new and existing medical schools.
Many cardiac drugs seem safe for use during and after pregnancy. However, evidence is lacking for some drugs, and many of them carry risks of adverse events. Shared decision making, considering risks and benefits of medicines, is vital to help women weigh up potential risks both to themselves and their unborn baby.
A visual summary of symptoms suggestive of lower limb Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Working at night disrupts the circadian rhythm and can lead to the accumulation of a sleep debt, impairing performance and health. Full adaptation to night shift work is not possible in the short term, so night shift workers should be aware of reduced performance during critical tasks and on the journey home. This summary looks at ways night shift workers can plan a sleeping schedule, optimising health and performance whilst minimising sleep debt.
Concerns have been raised over the health effects of rising caesarian rates throughout the world. One of the few countries able to reverse this trend is China, by introducing a number of policies to restrict caesarian use. This infographic summarises some of the policies that have been put in place over recent years.
The introduction of accountable care organisations (ACOs) into the English NHS signals a major reorganisation of the health and adult social care system. Plans for ACOs were proceeding without the usual public consultation followed by an act of parliament. However, after the launch of a judicial review (in which AMP is a claimant and PR is assisting the claimants), the government and NHS England have now announced there will be a national public consultation in the spring. This infographic summarises some of the key uncertainties and complexities of ACOs.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is most commonly due to atherosclerosis, where an atherosclerotic plaque causes arterial stenosis or occulsion. This infograph summarises some telltale symptoms and signs associated with PAD.
Laparoscopy has revolutionised the field of abdominal surgery over the past thirty years, allowing surgeons to perform operations without the need for a large abdominal incision. Recovery times are often shorter than open surgery. This infographic shows some of the key milestones and hazards on the road to recovery.
APGAR tests, which measure a child's vital signs and response to stimuli in the first minutes of life, can tell us more than we previously thought about risks of developing neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy.
What role do antibiotics have in the treatment of uncomplicated skin abscesses after incision and drainage? A recent study suggested that, for small uncomplicated skin abscesses, antibiotics after incision and drainage improve the chance of short term cure compared with placebo. Triggered by this trial, the Rapid Recommendation team produced a new systematic review. The infographic presents the recommendations together with other pertinent information, including an overview of the absolute benefits and harms of candidate antibiotics in the standard GRADE format.
Illness associated with travel is common. Most infections are mild or self limiting, however their non-specific presentations make them challenging to distinguish from life threatening infections such as malaria. This infographic summarises triage, risk assessment, and isolation of illnesses in returning travellers.
Trials of the TB vaccination booster MVA85A have been carried out with nearly 2800 infants to date. This timeline shows the seeming disconnect between the publication dates of the (largely unfavourable) animal studies and the continuation of human studies.
In one of our BMJ Christmas articles, we explore how wine glass capacity in England has increased sevenfold in 300 years. This increased drinking since the mid-20th century can reflect greater affordability, availability, and marketing of alcohol products, and this infographic visualises the changing size of our wine glasses over the last three centuries.
Prompt referral of patients with suspected eating disorders to specialist services is important as early treatment substantially improves prognosis. This visual summary explores various symptoms that indicate a need for urgent referral.
Psychosis can be a frightening and bewildering experience for both patients and families. Early proactive support and intervention improves clinical outcomes, avoids costly and traumatic hospital admissions, and is preferred by patients and their families. Psychosis can be identified by two kinds of symptoms - positive and negative - and this visual summary helps to differentiate between the two, as well as offer potential management pathways.
Unlike the NHS, local authorities, which have been responsible for public health in England since 2013, are not allowed to run into debt. A succession of cuts in funding from central government have squeezed budgets, forcing councils to work smarter to avoid reducing services. Between 2015 and 2018, there have been many actual and planned changes to overall sexual health budgets in England, and this interactive summary breaks down these changes on a county by county basis.
Foot disease affects nearly 6% of people with diabetes and includes infection, ulceration, or destruction of tissues of the foot. This visual summary explores routes of examination and screening, as well as looking at the different levels of risk, and appropriate treatment and referral choices based on these risks.
Trained community health workers are well positioned for early identification of children with severe acute malnutrition. This visual summary sets out routes of screening potential cases of undernutrition in children up to the age of 5.
Antiplatelet drugs and oral anticoagulants are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in both primary and secondary care. Clinicians are familiar with their use, however antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants are the drug classes most commonly implicated in adverse drug reactions occurring both in the community and in hospital. Using four clinical scenarios as examples, this infographic summarises combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment courses, including treatment times and potential risks.
Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of death during pregnancy and early motherhood, accounting for 25% of maternal deaths worldwide, and is the second leading direct cause of maternal deaths in the UK. This infographic is a visual summary of the suggested approaches for the management of primary and secondary postpartum haemorrhage.
Growth in infants and preschool children is a common cause for parental and professional concern. Although some weight loss is common in the early days of life, the term “faltering growth” is used to describe a pattern of slower weight gain than expected for age and sex in infants and preschool children after these early days and is most often due to inadequate nutritional intake.
This visual summary explores the symptoms of faltering growth, as well as management, escalation and referral strategies.
Cystic fibrosis is a life limiting autosomal recessive disorder that affects up to one in 2500 babies born in the UK. Caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein, it is a multisystem disorder, affecting the lungs, pancreas, liver, and intestine. This infographic summarises the recent NICE guidance on the diagnosis and management of cystic fibrosis in children, young people, and adults.
Earlier this year the World Health Organization and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs launched the Global Abortion Policies Database, an open access repository of abortion laws, policies, standards, and guidelines for 197 countries. This interactive graphic identifies the various policies and laws that apply for each of the countries included in this database.
Approximately 1.4 million women living with HIV become pregnant every year. Most women use antiretroviral therapy, to reduce the risk of vertical transmission or for personal health reasons. This interactive infographic allows you to explore the antiretroviral regimen recommendations suggested in the BMJ Rapid Recommendations article.
Postoperative rehabilitation and physiotheraphy are beneficial after knee, hip, and shoulder arthroplasty, and are increasingly conducted in the community because of the short postoperative length of stay. This infographic summarises advice on patient restrictions and suitable treatment and management schedules, breaking these down on a week-by-week basis dependant on replacement type.
Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecological disorders, affecting an estimated 10% of women in the reproductive age group, and in the UK it is the second most common gynaecological condition (after fibroids)
This infographic visually summarises recent recommendations from NICE on the diagnosis and management of endometriosis in community services, gynaecology services, and specialist endometriosis services (endometriosis centres), focusing on investigation, early management, and referral for women displaying symptoms.
The WHO South East Asia Region (SEAR) has unique characteristics that contribute to the likelihood of increasing resistance to antibiotics developing in the region. This infographic summarises some of these characteristics, exploring both emergence and transmission of infections.
Symptoms of inflammatory arthritis are often controlled in the long term using DMARDs (Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs). This graphic shows information about the four most commonly prescribed DMARDs, including recommended monitoring and other conditions that could interfere with treatment.
An interactive summary of the recommendations from our 'Corticosteroids for sore throat' Rapid Recommendation, giving an overview of the absolute benefits and harms of corticosteroids in the standard GRADE format.
Since its first foray into health in the early 1970s to the present, the World Bank has become one of the largest and most influential health funders worldwide. This infographic looks to chart the ways in which the bank has developed since its creation, and explores the considerable growth of Health, Nutrition, and Population sector funding over the last 40 years.
Babies born preterm are at a higher risk of developmental problems and disorders, and this risk increases with decreasing gestational age. This infographic visually summarises the different levels of surveillance, support, and developmental follow-up available for young people born preterm, as recommended in recent NICE guidelines.
Many patients suffering from advanced cancer or terminal disease use opioids to relieve pain, and often this can lead to opioid-induced constipation. Constipation is often multifactoral in such patients. This infographic summarises some of the ways that these problems can be managed and treated.
Parkinson's patients classically present motor symptoms, although non-motor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment and autonomic disturbance may also be prominent. Revised NICE guidelines have outlined a general strategy for the management of both types of symptoms. This infographic summarises these strategies, as well as exploring ways of providing ongoing care. It also provides recommendations on the use of treatments that may provide some relief from the distressing symptoms of advanced Parkinson’s disease.
Effective management of Lassa fever involves early recognition of an infection, containment and isolation, antiviral treatment, and supportive care in hospital. This infographic summarises these different stages of management.
It is important to ensure that patients undergoing Hepatitis C treatment are monitored closely for complications. This infographic explores the likelihood of these potential issues.
A visual summary of managing patients disclosing gender dysphoria, encouraging cooperation and respect to get the best experiences and outcomes for patients.
More than half of London’s NHS facilities are blanketed in air pollution that is above legal limits. This interactive map matches air quality data across London against the locations of health centres across the capital.
This graphic reveals the large gaps in our knowledge regarding the causes of birth defects, by presenting the etiology of major birth defects present in 5504 of the infants in a population based study cohort.
Hypoactive delirium tends to capture less clinical attention than hyperactive delirium, despite being difficult to recognise and being associated with worse outcomes. This graphic differentiates between these two forms of delirium and summarises the adverse consequences of both.
Summarising symptoms of abnormal grief, as defined under different classification systems as "prolonged grief disorder" or "persistent complex bereavement disorder". The infographic shows the substantial overlap between the two names for similar conditions.
This graphic shows the advice given by the BMJ Rapid Recommendations panel against the use of knee arthroscopy. The panel decided that most people would prefer to avoid the pain and inconvenience of the recovery period after arthroscopy, since it offers only a small chance of a small benefit.
A visual overview of initial assessment for patients having suicidal thoughts. Includes risk and protective factors that need to be balanced to determine a patient's overall risk of suicide.
According to a new model by the Health Foundation, there are eight different factors which influence consultant's productivity - from having enough nurses and support staff to higher wages compared to the local area. This infographic shows which of the eight factors had the greatest impact.
Feelings of being detached from reality are quite common, but they can also be so severe that they impact daily life. This graphic shows how to assess the severity of a patient's depersonalisation / derealisation symptoms, and suggests some appropriate interventions depending on severity.
Spondyloarthritis can have diverse symptoms and be difficult to identify. This graphic summarises key indicators, and referral criteria for both axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis.
Aggressive treatments such as resuscitation can sometimes not be in a patient's best interest. This graphic explains how to talk with a patient about their preferences for emergencies, and record their wishes in an emergency care plan.
This graphic shows the advice given by the BMJ Rapid Recommendations panel against the use of LIPUS (low intensity pulsed ultrasound) for bone healing. It explains the panel's reasoning, and summarises the evidence base and patient preferences upon which the decision was made.
Data from the UK Foundation Office shows that half of doctors completing their foundation training don’t go straight into specialty training. This infographic shows where these doctors go instead.
Often incorrectly referred to as "legal highs", these substances come in a huge range of different forms and varieties. This infographic provides a visual overview of NPS types, common names, delivery methods and associated risks.
Showing the labyrinthian flow of funding between the UK government and the frontline, including devolved spending for Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
A brief overview the new NICE guidelines, from the perspective of a patient presenting in primary care. Infographic includes assessment of likely recovery outcomes, management and pain relief options.
A visual summary of the NICE guidance on end of life care for children and young people. Find out about the support needed by young people and their families, the professional expertise required and the idea of advance care planning.
A visual overview of the suggested recovery progression for concussion, including common symptoms, stages of recovery, and recommended medical assessments.
A visual overview of the six action points recommended by the UK Health Alliance on Climate Change, to simultaneously address health and environmental problems.
The first in our new series of "Rapid Recommendations" compares TAVI with surgical valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in patients at lower risk of perioperative death. The visual summary shows the recommendations made by the panel, and explains the evidence upon which they are based.
Teenagers and young adults (TYA) who survive cancer treatment can have a range of side effects later in life. This graphic is a visual summary of some of these side effects, explaining the principal causative agents, those at greatest risk, and how to monitor and manage their symptoms.
An overview of risk assessment, monitoring and management of people with suspected sepsis. Separate sections are provided for primary care and hospital settings, as well as different age groups.
Adults do not always have a complete history or knowledge of procedures undergone. This infographic shows common types of surgery performed for congenital heart disease, and the different entry points used.
New NICE guidelines suggest that preoperative tests are not always required, especially for minor surgery in people with no systemic disease. This graphic summarises which tests are recommended, by patient's physical status and surgery complexity.
In his editorial, Danny Dorling argues that austerity, not immigration, was the driving force behind the vote to leave the European Union. This map illustrates one of his points, that while the working class north has been blamed for Brexit, the South actually contributed more votes, since it has a larger population.
Clinical identification of cirrhosis remains imperfect, and the condition is often asymptomatic. This infographic summarises NICE guidance on diagnosis of cirrhosis, referral to specialist care, and management of people with cirrhosis, including surveillance for and treatment of complications.
An overview of the latest evidence for sepsis treatments, including approprite fluids, vasopressors, feeding and ventilation techniques.
Visualising a young person's transition from child to adult care services, following new NICE guidance.
A visual summary of the NICE guidelines on the use of single, dual or triple therapy with blood glucose lowering drugs, and when to consider an insulin programme.
Some public health interventions can have benefits for both health and helping to reduce levels of climate change. This infographic, designed in collaboration with the new UK Health Alliance on Climate Change, shows some examples of such symbiotic relationships.
A number of complications are relatively common for people with bariatric surgery. This graphic explains which should be treated as emergencies, what the possible causes might be for different symptoms, and where to refer patients that need could need further surgery or specialist opinion.
A quick overview of key Zika virus facts, including countries affected and advice on prevention, diagnosis and management of patients returning from outbreak areas.
This infographic explores the waste created when expensive infused drugs are packaged containing quantities larger than the amount needed. This is especially problematic when variable recommended doses are recommended, based on patient weight or body size.
This infographic gives general principles for managing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people. It includes glycaemic control and HbA1c targets, as well as monitoring of complications and associated conditions.
This graphic presents data that suggests cancer screening may not affect overall mortality, despite reducing deaths from specific cancers.
Portion sizes of pre-packaged meals have increased over the last 20 years. This infographic explains how this could affect energy intake, and how policies could be developed in response.
This graphic summarises the main ways in which climate change will affect human health for the rest of the 21st Century globally. It summarises information from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
The NICE guidance on diagnosis and management of preterm events is presented in this flow infographic. The diagram includes information on preterm labour and preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes (P-PROM).
This interactive infographic presents childhood vaccination schedules across the G8 nations. By selecting and deselecting individual vaccines, you can visually explore similarities and differences in official recommendations.
This interactive graphic shows all the potential conflicts of interest highlighted by The BMJ and The Times's joint investigation into CCG commissioning.
This infographic shows the evidence that informed Public Health England’s claim that “e-cigarettes are around 95% safer than smoked tobacco.” It also reveals the links between these papers’ authors and different medical and commercial organisations.
This flow diagram shows how ECG results, clinical assessment, and biomarkers can distinguish between types of Acute Coronary Syndrome. The assessment and management of the two main types (ST elevation and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction) are also given.
Since March 2011, over 75,000 civilians have been killed in the Syrian Arab Republic in relation to the armed conflict in the area. 25% of Syrian civilians killed were women and children, who are disproportionally affected by indirect weapon systems such as air strikes and shelling. This graphic charts the deaths from different causes.
Bisphosphonates can reduce the risk of fracture for patients with osteoporosis, increasing bone strength and reducing fracture risk. This graphic aims to provide an overview of patient assessment and the appropriate treatment pathways and decisions to be made at each stage.
This graphic shows how to recognise febrile seizures, and to distinguish them from seizures caused by CNS infections. It also shows information that can be given to advise parents on the risk of future seizures, and how they can manage these at home.
Sharps injuries, from objects such as needles, scalpels, bone fragments, or teeth, pose a risk of transmission of blood borne viruses. This infographic explains how to manage such injuries, from first aid through to assessing the risks posed by a specific incident and source patient.
A visual summary of the revised NICE guidelines on childhood cancer. Arranged by presenting symptom, this graphic covers assessment, investigative testing and referral.
Irritable bowel syndrome is a challenging condition to define and treat, with great variability in terms of symptoms and a wide range of proposed treatments. This graphic summarizes the currently available treatments for irritable bowel syndrome, and gives an indication of the level of evidence available at time of publication.
UK politicians often talk of “health tourism”—undocumented migrants arriving in the UK to take advantage of our healthcare system. But are we really so different to our neighbours in Europe? Find out in this interactive map.
The BMJ’s website is 20 years old this month. This infographic timeline charts the developments of the last two decades, with new layouts, new content streams and new technologies adopted along the way.
MPs have repeatedly accepted hospitality from the tobacco industry, to a total value of more than £60,000 over the last 5 years. This infographic shows which MPs accepted trips to the Chelsea Flower show, the Oval Test Match, Wimbledon and Glyndebourne since 2010, and whether they voted for or against plain packaging for cigarettes.
Our interactive manifesto tool shows the parties' positions on health. Where do they stand on NHS funding? On improving GP access? On public health, social care and privitisation? Where do the parties overlap, and where do they stand diametrically opposed?
This graphic accompanies Jonathan Gornall's investigation into the tobacco industry. It shows the staggering volume of cigarettes consumed worldwide, and the scale of the associated health consequences.
Facemasks are recommended for diseases transmitted through droplets and respirators for respiratory aerosols, yet recommendations and terminology vary between guidelines. This graphic summarises the recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for five diseases.
In the US, deaths from exposure to cold temperatures are noticeably higher in the west. This interactive graphic uses data from the CDC to show which regions and states have the highest rates, and reveals a stable pattern over the last 12 years.
This graphic shows the outcomes for a cohort of men diagnosed with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms of different sizes, indicating that those with smaller aneurysms may be more frequently overdiagnosed.
This interactive graphic shows the full details of connections between the sugar industry and UK government advisory bodies on nutrition.
This animated graphic shows a model of codesign, in which patients, carers and staff are brought together to share ideas and improve services.
This interactive graphic explores the association between the prevalence of obesity and diabetes according to US state.
Use our interactive graphic to explore the neurodevelopmental consequences of prematurity and the different neuroprotective agents used.
A visual representation of the theoretical distribution of intravenous fluids on infusion.
This infographic offers practical advice on prescribing opioids for low back pain. Caution is advised, since the analgesic efficacy of opioids for acute back pain is inferred from evidence in other acute pain conditions.
This interactive graphic gives an overview of some key treatments, used in the initial stages of Parkinson’s disease to address the common motor symptoms and depression.
This interactive graphic shows the sources of malaria infections diagnosed in the USA. Data comes from the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, USA.
This infographic shows data from the BMJ's investigation into NHS commissioning by Gareth Iacobucci.
This information graphic gives a quick guide to ebola disease symptoms, management and infection control.
This interactive graphic displays study design strategies that can be used to address some challenges faced in rare disease research.
This interactive tool shows how the incidence of kidney cancer compares with other cancers, and how this varies by population.
This interactive graphic shows the relationship between the political affiliation of states and their adoption of two key 'Obamacare' measures.
This interactive graphic explains the medical and social impacts of teenage pregnancy on mothers and their children.
This interactive graphic shows the reference ranges for thyrotropin levels in different parts of the world. It also shows the thyrotropin levels that have been used to define subclinical hypothyroidism in the the different studies in The BMJ's State of the Art review on diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.
An interactive graphic which explains the development of bariatric surgery techniques.
This infographic shows the range of treatments that are commonly used for Lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Use the siders at top to explore how different symptom severity scores can give an overall symptom severity score, and how this could be linked to different treatments. It is important to consider also how these symptoms affect quality of life before deciding on a treatment strategy.
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