Five new medical schools have been created in England under government plans to increase medical student numbers in England. This summary looks at the locations, demand and place numbers at both new and existing medical schools.
Our infographics are a new initiative at The BMJ. We know that you, our readers, are increasingly time-pressured, so we aim for them to include some carefully selected information from an article, highlighting the key messages. We hope that you find them quick and easy to use, and that they also help you to remember the information they contain.
BMJ infographics are reviewed by the authors, our technical and section editors and with some the peer reviewers before publication, and we're confident that they are accurate representations of the article. At the time of going to press, we make every effort to ensure that the information held in them is up-to-date.
However, because of their innovative nature, we add disclaimers to them, to remind our readers that the information contained should be treated with the same caution as written articles. The graphics are often a summary of a summary - they shouldn't be taken to be the whole of the information available on the subject. Rare conditions/complications/etc will sometimes be excluded.
While our infographics are not validated decision aids that have been extensively tested on clinicians or patients, we want them to be useful to readers in summarising recommendations or evidence. If you have any comments about their usability, we'd be glad to hear.
Five new medical schools have been created in England under government plans to increase medical student numbers in England. This summary looks at the locations, demand and place numbers at both new and existing medical schools.
Many cardiac drugs seem safe for use during and after pregnancy. However, evidence is lacking for some drugs, and many of them carry risks of adverse events. Shared decision making, considering risks and benefits of medicines, is vital to help women weigh up potential risks both to themselves and their unborn baby.
A visual summary of symptoms suggestive of lower limb Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Working at night disrupts the circadian rhythm and can lead to the accumulation of a sleep debt, impairing performance and health. Full adaptation to night shift work is not possible in the short term, so night shift workers should be aware of reduced performance during critical tasks and on the journey home. This summary looks at ways night shift workers can plan a sleeping schedule, optimising health and performance whilst minimising sleep debt.
Concerns have been raised over the health effects of rising caesarian rates throughout the world. One of the few countries able to reverse this trend is China, by introducing a number of policies to restrict caesarian use. This infographic summarises some of the policies that have been put in place over recent years.
The introduction of accountable care organisations (ACOs) into the English NHS signals a major reorganisation of the health and adult social care system. Plans for ACOs were proceeding without the usual public consultation followed by an act of parliament. However, after the launch of a judicial review (in which AMP is a claimant and PR is assisting the claimants), the government and NHS England have now announced there will be a national public consultation in the spring. This infographic summarises some of the key uncertainties and complexities of ACOs.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is most commonly due to atherosclerosis, where an atherosclerotic plaque causes arterial stenosis or occulsion. This infograph summarises some telltale symptoms and signs associated with PAD.
Laparoscopy has revolutionised the field of abdominal surgery over the past thirty years, allowing surgeons to perform operations without the need for a large abdominal incision. Recovery times are often shorter than open surgery. This infographic shows some of the key milestones and hazards on the road to recovery.
APGAR tests, which measure a child's vital signs and response to stimuli in the first minutes of life, can tell us more than we previously thought about risks of developing neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy.
What role do antibiotics have in the treatment of uncomplicated skin abscesses after incision and drainage? A recent study suggested that, for small uncomplicated skin abscesses, antibiotics after incision and drainage improve the chance of short term cure compared with placebo. Triggered by this trial, the Rapid Recommendation team produced a new systematic review. The infographic presents the recommendations together with other pertinent information, including an overview of the absolute benefits and harms of candidate antibiotics in the standard GRADE format.
Illness associated with travel is common. Most infections are mild or self limiting, however their non-specific presentations make them challenging to distinguish from life threatening infections such as malaria. This infographic summarises triage, risk assessment, and isolation of illnesses in returning travellers.
Trials of the TB vaccination booster MVA85A have been carried out with nearly 2800 infants to date. This timeline shows the seeming disconnect between the publication dates of the (largely unfavourable) animal studies and the continuation of human studies.
In one of our BMJ Christmas articles, we explore how wine glass capacity in England has increased sevenfold in 300 years. This increased drinking since the mid-20th century can reflect greater affordability, availability, and marketing of alcohol products, and this infographic visualises the changing size of our wine glasses over the last three centuries.
Prompt referral of patients with suspected eating disorders to specialist services is important as early treatment substantially improves prognosis. This visual summary explores various symptoms that indicate a need for urgent referral.
Psychosis can be a frightening and bewildering experience for both patients and families. Early proactive support and intervention improves clinical outcomes, avoids costly and traumatic hospital admissions, and is preferred by patients and their families. Psychosis can be identified by two kinds of symptoms - positive and negative - and this visual summary helps to differentiate between the two, as well as offer potential management pathways.
Unlike the NHS, local authorities, which have been responsible for public health in England since 2013, are not allowed to run into debt. A succession of cuts in funding from central government have squeezed budgets, forcing councils to work smarter to avoid reducing services. Between 2015 and 2018, there have been many actual and planned changes to overall sexual health budgets in England, and this interactive summary breaks down these changes on a county by county basis.
Foot disease affects nearly 6% of people with diabetes and includes infection, ulceration, or destruction of tissues of the foot. This visual summary explores routes of examination and screening, as well as looking at the different levels of risk, and appropriate treatment and referral choices based on these risks.
Trained community health workers are well positioned for early identification of children with severe acute malnutrition. This visual summary sets out routes of screening potential cases of undernutrition in children up to the age of 5.
Antiplatelet drugs and oral anticoagulants are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in both primary and secondary care. Clinicians are familiar with their use, however antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants are the drug classes most commonly implicated in adverse drug reactions occurring both in the community and in hospital. Using four clinical scenarios as examples, this infographic summarises combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment courses, including treatment times and potential risks.
Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of death during pregnancy and early motherhood, accounting for 25% of maternal deaths worldwide, and is the second leading direct cause of maternal deaths in the UK. This infographic is a visual summary of the suggested approaches for the management of primary and secondary postpartum haemorrhage.
Growth in infants and preschool children is a common cause for parental and professional concern. Although some weight loss is common in the early days of life, the term “faltering growth” is used to describe a pattern of slower weight gain than expected for age and sex in infants and preschool children after these early days and is most often due to inadequate nutritional intake.
This visual summary explores the symptoms of faltering growth, as well as management, escalation and referral strategies.
Cystic fibrosis is a life limiting autosomal recessive disorder that affects up to one in 2500 babies born in the UK. Caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein, it is a multisystem disorder, affecting the lungs, pancreas, liver, and intestine. This infographic summarises the recent NICE guidance on the diagnosis and management of cystic fibrosis in children, young people, and adults.
Earlier this year the World Health Organization and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs launched the Global Abortion Policies Database, an open access repository of abortion laws, policies, standards, and guidelines for 197 countries. This interactive graphic identifies the various policies and laws that apply for each of the countries included in this database.
Approximately 1.4 million women living with HIV become pregnant every year. Most women use antiretroviral therapy, to reduce the risk of vertical transmission or for personal health reasons. This interactive infographic allows you to explore the antiretroviral regimen recommendations suggested in the BMJ Rapid Recommendations article.
Postoperative rehabilitation and physiotheraphy are beneficial after knee, hip, and shoulder arthroplasty, and are increasingly conducted in the community because of the short postoperative length of stay. This infographic summarises advice on patient restrictions and suitable treatment and management schedules, breaking these down on a week-by-week basis dependant on replacement type.
Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecological disorders, affecting an estimated 10% of women in the reproductive age group, and in the UK it is the second most common gynaecological condition (after fibroids)
This infographic visually summarises recent recommendations from NICE on the diagnosis and management of endometriosis in community services, gynaecology services, and specialist endometriosis services (endometriosis centres), focusing on investigation, early management, and referral for women displaying symptoms.
The WHO South East Asia Region (SEAR) has unique characteristics that contribute to the likelihood of increasing resistance to antibiotics developing in the region. This infographic summarises some of these characteristics, exploring both emergence and transmission of infections.
Symptoms of inflammatory arthritis are often controlled in the long term using DMARDs (Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs). This graphic shows information about the four most commonly prescribed DMARDs, including recommended monitoring and other conditions that could interfere with treatment.
An interactive summary of the recommendations from our 'Corticosteroids for sore throat' Rapid Recommendation, giving an overview of the absolute benefits and harms of corticosteroids in the standard GRADE format.
Since its first foray into health in the early 1970s to the present, the World Bank has become one of the largest and most influential health funders worldwide. This infographic looks to chart the ways in which the bank has developed since its creation, and explores the considerable growth of Health, Nutrition, and Population sector funding over the last 40 years.
Babies born preterm are at a higher risk of developmental problems and disorders, and this risk increases with decreasing gestational age. This infographic visually summarises the different levels of surveillance, support, and developmental follow-up available for young people born preterm, as recommended in recent NICE guidelines.
Many patients suffering from advanced cancer or terminal disease use opioids to relieve pain, and often this can lead to opioid-induced constipation. Constipation is often multifactoral in such patients. This infographic summarises some of the ways that these problems can be managed and treated.
Parkinson's patients classically present motor symptoms, although non-motor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment and autonomic disturbance may also be prominent. Revised NICE guidelines have outlined a general strategy for the management of both types of symptoms. This infographic summarises these strategies, as well as exploring ways of providing ongoing care. It also provides recommendations on the use of treatments that may provide some relief from the distressing symptoms of advanced Parkinson’s disease.
Effective management of Lassa fever involves early recognition of an infection, containment and isolation, antiviral treatment, and supportive care in hospital. This infographic summarises these different stages of management.
It is important to ensure that patients undergoing Hepatitis C treatment are monitored closely for complications. This infographic explores the likelihood of these potential issues.
A visual summary of managing patients disclosing gender dysphoria, encouraging cooperation and respect to get the best experiences and outcomes for patients.
More than half of London’s NHS facilities are blanketed in air pollution that is above legal limits. This interactive map matches air quality data across London against the locations of health centres across the capital.
This graphic reveals the large gaps in our knowledge regarding the causes of birth defects, by presenting the etiology of major birth defects present in 5504 of the infants in a population based study cohort.
Hypoactive delirium tends to capture less clinical attention than hyperactive delirium, despite being difficult to recognise and being associated with worse outcomes. This graphic differentiates between these two forms of delirium and summarises the adverse consequences of both.
Summarising symptoms of abnormal grief, as defined under different classification systems as "prolonged grief disorder" or "persistent complex bereavement disorder". The infographic shows the substantial overlap between the two names for similar conditions.
This graphic shows the advice given by the BMJ Rapid Recommendations panel against the use of knee arthroscopy. The panel decided that most people would prefer to avoid the pain and inconvenience of the recovery period after arthroscopy, since it offers only a small chance of a small benefit.
A visual overview of initial assessment for patients having suicidal thoughts. Includes risk and protective factors that need to be balanced to determine a patient's overall risk of suicide.
According to a new model by the Health Foundation, there are eight different factors which influence consultant's productivity - from having enough nurses and support staff to higher wages compared to the local area. This infographic shows which of the eight factors had the greatest impact.
Feelings of being detached from reality are quite common, but they can also be so severe that they impact daily life. This graphic shows how to assess the severity of a patient's depersonalisation / derealisation symptoms, and suggests some appropriate interventions depending on severity.
Spondyloarthritis can have diverse symptoms and be difficult to identify. This graphic summarises key indicators, and referral criteria for both axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis.
Aggressive treatments such as resuscitation can sometimes not be in a patient's best interest. This graphic explains how to talk with a patient about their preferences for emergencies, and record their wishes in an emergency care plan.
This graphic shows the advice given by the BMJ Rapid Recommendations panel against the use of LIPUS (low intensity pulsed ultrasound) for bone healing. It explains the panel's reasoning, and summarises the evidence base and patient preferences upon which the decision was made.
Data from the UK Foundation Office shows that half of doctors completing their foundation training don’t go straight into specialty training. This infographic shows where these doctors go instead.
Often incorrectly referred to as "legal highs", these substances come in a huge range of different forms and varieties. This infographic provides a visual overview of NPS types, common names, delivery methods and associated risks.
Showing the labyrinthian flow of funding between the UK government and the frontline, including devolved spending for Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
A brief overview the new NICE guidelines, from the perspective of a patient presenting in primary care. Infographic includes assessment of likely recovery outcomes, management and pain relief options.
A visual summary of the NICE guidance on end of life care for children and young people. Find out about the support needed by young people and their families, the professional expertise required and the idea of advance care planning.
A visual overview of the suggested recovery progression for concussion, including common symptoms, stages of recovery, and recommended medical assessments.
A visual overview of the six action points recommended by the UK Health Alliance on Climate Change, to simultaneously address health and environmental problems.
The first in our new series of "Rapid Recommendations" compares TAVI with surgical valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in patients at lower risk of perioperative death. The visual summary shows the recommendations made by the panel, and explains the evidence upon which they are based.
Teenagers and young adults (TYA) who survive cancer treatment can have a range of side effects later in life. This graphic is a visual summary of some of these side effects, explaining the principal causative agents, those at greatest risk, and how to monitor and manage their symptoms.
An overview of risk assessment, monitoring and management of people with suspected sepsis. Separate sections are provided for primary care and hospital settings, as well as different age groups.
Adults do not always have a complete history or knowledge of procedures undergone. This infographic shows common types of surgery performed for congenital heart disease, and the different entry points used.
New NICE guidelines suggest that preoperative tests are not always required, especially for minor surgery in people with no systemic disease. This graphic summarises which tests are recommended, by patient's physical status and surgery complexity.
In his editorial, Danny Dorling argues that austerity, not immigration, was the driving force behind the vote to leave the European Union. This map illustrates one of his points, that while the working class north has been blamed for Brexit, the South actually contributed more votes, since it has a larger population.
Clinical identification of cirrhosis remains imperfect, and the condition is often asymptomatic. This infographic summarises NICE guidance on diagnosis of cirrhosis, referral to specialist care, and management of people with cirrhosis, including surveillance for and treatment of complications.
An overview of the latest evidence for sepsis treatments, including approprite fluids, vasopressors, feeding and ventilation techniques.
Visualising a young person's transition from child to adult care services, following new NICE guidance.
A visual summary of the NICE guidelines on the use of single, dual or triple therapy with blood glucose lowering drugs, and when to consider an insulin programme.
Some public health interventions can have benefits for both health and helping to reduce levels of climate change. This infographic, designed in collaboration with the new UK Health Alliance on Climate Change, shows some examples of such symbiotic relationships.
A number of complications are relatively common for people with bariatric surgery. This graphic explains which should be treated as emergencies, what the possible causes might be for different symptoms, and where to refer patients that need could need further surgery or specialist opinion.
A quick overview of key Zika virus facts, including countries affected and advice on prevention, diagnosis and management of patients returning from outbreak areas.
This infographic explores the waste created when expensive infused drugs are packaged containing quantities larger than the amount needed. This is especially problematic when variable recommended doses are recommended, based on patient weight or body size.
This infographic gives general principles for managing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people. It includes glycaemic control and HbA1c targets, as well as monitoring of complications and associated conditions.
This graphic presents data that suggests cancer screening may not affect overall mortality, despite reducing deaths from specific cancers.
Portion sizes of pre-packaged meals have increased over the last 20 years. This infographic explains how this could affect energy intake, and how policies could be developed in response.
This graphic summarises the main ways in which climate change will affect human health for the rest of the 21st Century globally. It summarises information from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
The NICE guidance on diagnosis and management of preterm events is presented in this flow infographic. The diagram includes information on preterm labour and preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes (P-PROM).
This interactive infographic presents childhood vaccination schedules across the G8 nations. By selecting and deselecting individual vaccines, you can visually explore similarities and differences in official recommendations.
This interactive graphic shows all the potential conflicts of interest highlighted by The BMJ and The Times's joint investigation into CCG commissioning.
This infographic shows the evidence that informed Public Health England’s claim that “e-cigarettes are around 95% safer than smoked tobacco.” It also reveals the links between these papers’ authors and different medical and commercial organisations.
This flow diagram shows how ECG results, clinical assessment, and biomarkers can distinguish between types of Acute Coronary Syndrome. The assessment and management of the two main types (ST elevation and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction) are also given.
Since March 2011, over 75,000 civilians have been killed in the Syrian Arab Republic in relation to the armed conflict in the area. 25% of Syrian civilians killed were women and children, who are disproportionally affected by indirect weapon systems such as air strikes and shelling. This graphic charts the deaths from different causes.
Bisphosphonates can reduce the risk of fracture for patients with osteoporosis, increasing bone strength and reducing fracture risk. This graphic aims to provide an overview of patient assessment and the appropriate treatment pathways and decisions to be made at each stage.
This graphic shows how to recognise febrile seizures, and to distinguish them from seizures caused by CNS infections. It also shows information that can be given to advise parents on the risk of future seizures, and how they can manage these at home.
Sharps injuries, from objects such as needles, scalpels, bone fragments, or teeth, pose a risk of transmission of blood borne viruses. This infographic explains how to manage such injuries, from first aid through to assessing the risks posed by a specific incident and source patient.
A visual summary of the revised NICE guidelines on childhood cancer. Arranged by presenting symptom, this graphic covers assessment, investigative testing and referral.
Irritable bowel syndrome is a challenging condition to define and treat, with great variability in terms of symptoms and a wide range of proposed treatments. This graphic summarizes the currently available treatments for irritable bowel syndrome, and gives an indication of the level of evidence available at time of publication.
UK politicians often talk of “health tourism”—undocumented migrants arriving in the UK to take advantage of our healthcare system. But are we really so different to our neighbours in Europe? Find out in this interactive map.
The BMJ’s website is 20 years old this month. This infographic timeline charts the developments of the last two decades, with new layouts, new content streams and new technologies adopted along the way.
MPs have repeatedly accepted hospitality from the tobacco industry, to a total value of more than £60,000 over the last 5 years. This infographic shows which MPs accepted trips to the Chelsea Flower show, the Oval Test Match, Wimbledon and Glyndebourne since 2010, and whether they voted for or against plain packaging for cigarettes.
Our interactive manifesto tool shows the parties' positions on health. Where do they stand on NHS funding? On improving GP access? On public health, social care and privitisation? Where do the parties overlap, and where do they stand diametrically opposed?
This graphic accompanies Jonathan Gornall's investigation into the tobacco industry. It shows the staggering volume of cigarettes consumed worldwide, and the scale of the associated health consequences.
Facemasks are recommended for diseases transmitted through droplets and respirators for respiratory aerosols, yet recommendations and terminology vary between guidelines. This graphic summarises the recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for five diseases.
In the US, deaths from exposure to cold temperatures are noticeably higher in the west. This interactive graphic uses data from the CDC to show which regions and states have the highest rates, and reveals a stable pattern over the last 12 years.
This graphic shows the outcomes for a cohort of men diagnosed with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms of different sizes, indicating that those with smaller aneurysms may be more frequently overdiagnosed.
This interactive graphic shows the full details of connections between the sugar industry and UK government advisory bodies on nutrition.
This animated graphic shows a model of codesign, in which patients, carers and staff are brought together to share ideas and improve services.
This interactive graphic explores the association between the prevalence of obesity and diabetes according to US state.
Use our interactive graphic to explore the neurodevelopmental consequences of prematurity and the different neuroprotective agents used.
A visual representation of the theoretical distribution of intravenous fluids on infusion.
This infographic offers practical advice on prescribing opioids for low back pain. Caution is advised, since the analgesic efficacy of opioids for acute back pain is inferred from evidence in other acute pain conditions.
This interactive graphic gives an overview of some key treatments, used in the initial stages of Parkinson’s disease to address the common motor symptoms and depression.
This interactive graphic shows the sources of malaria infections diagnosed in the USA. Data comes from the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, USA.
This infographic shows data from the BMJ's investigation into NHS commissioning by Gareth Iacobucci.
This information graphic gives a quick guide to ebola disease symptoms, management and infection control.
This interactive graphic displays study design strategies that can be used to address some challenges faced in rare disease research.
This interactive tool shows how the incidence of kidney cancer compares with other cancers, and how this varies by population.
This interactive graphic shows the relationship between the political affiliation of states and their adoption of two key 'Obamacare' measures.
This interactive graphic explains the medical and social impacts of teenage pregnancy on mothers and their children.
This interactive graphic shows the reference ranges for thyrotropin levels in different parts of the world. It also shows the thyrotropin levels that have been used to define subclinical hypothyroidism in the the different studies in The BMJ's State of the Art review on diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.
An interactive graphic which explains the development of bariatric surgery techniques.
This infographic shows the range of treatments that are commonly used for Lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Use the siders at top to explore how different symptom severity scores can give an overall symptom severity score, and how this could be linked to different treatments. It is important to consider also how these symptoms affect quality of life before deciding on a treatment strategy.
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