Table 5 

Pooled analyses of trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements

Time point (years)Trials of dietary sources of calciumCalcium supplement trialsP (interaction)†
StudiesParticipantsBMD difference* (95% CI)P valueStudiesParticipantsBMD difference* (95% CI)P value
Lumbar spine
11112600.6 (−0.1 to 1.3)0.082738661.2 (0.8 to 1.7)<0.0010.13
288160.7 (0.3 to 1.2)0.0012161151.1 (0.7 to 1.6)<0.0010.19
>2.50838611.0 (0.3 to 1.6)0.003
Femoral neck
1810350.3 (−0.3 to 0.9)0.301926511.2 (0.7 to 1.8)<0.0010.02
277831.8 (1.1 to 2.6)<0.0011424151.0 (0.5 to 1.4)<0.0010.05
>2.50522571.5 (0.2 to 2.9)0.025
Total hip
169000.6 (0.3 to 1.0)0.001711591.4 (0.6 to 2.3)0.0010.08
256891.5 (0.7 to 2.4)<0.001743661.3 (0.8 to 1.8)<0.0010.63
>2.50638351.2 (0.5 to 1.9)0.001
Forearm
144180.0 (−0.4 to 0.5)0.85107911.0 (0.2 to 1.8)0.0140.04
221710.1 (−0.3 to 0.4)0.65108571.5 (0.5 to 2.6)0.0050.01
>2.5054371.8 (0.2 to 3.4)0.025
Total Body
134331.0 (0.3 to 1.8)0.0091012550.7 (0.4 to 1.1)<0.0010.47
223580.9 (0.5 to 1.3)<0.001639010.8 (0.5 to 1.1)<0.0010.67
>2.50741640.8 (0.5 to 1.1)<0.001

*Weighted mean difference between groups in percentage change in bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline.

†Test for interaction between subgroup of trials of dietary sources of calcium and subgroup of calcium supplement trials.