Table 3 

Design of randomised controlled trials and selected baseline characteristics of eligible trials of calcium supplements that also used vitamin D supplements

TrialDesignCalcium dose (mg/d)Vitamin D dose (IU/d)DurationCare settingNo of participants*No in Ca/control group†% womenMean age (y)
Smith 1981332×2 factorial: CaD, ex, ex/CaD, P7504003 yInstitution8021/3010082
Orwoll 1990382 arm: CaD , P100010003 yCommunity8641/36058
Chapuy 1992412 arm: CaD, P120080018 moInstitution327027/2910084
Aloia 1994443 arm: CaD, HRT/CaD, P/D6004002.9 yCommunity11834/3610052
Chevalley 1994193 arm: CaD, OMC/D, P/D800300 000 IM stat18 moCommunity9331/318972
Dawson-Hughes 1997492 arm: CaD, P5007003 yCommunity445187/2025571
Baeksgaard 1998503 arm: CaD, CaD/multivitamins, P10005602 yCommunity16065/6310062
Chapuy 2002563 arm: CaD, CaD, P12008002 yInstitution610393/19010085
Grados 2003572 arm: CaD, P50040012 moCommunity19295/9710075
Doetsch 2004582 arm: CaD, P100080012 wCommunity3016/14NSNS
Harwood 2004144 arm: CaD, CaD, D, control1000300 000 IM stat or 80012 moCommunity15075/7510081
Meier 2004592 arm: CaD, control5005006 moCommunity5527/166756
Riedt 2005603 arm: CaD/w-loss, D/w-loss, w-maintain12004006 moCommunity5523/2410061
Jackson 200672 arm: CaD, P10004007 yCommunity24311230/120110062
Bolton-Smith 2007632×2 factorial: CaD, CaD/vit K, vit K, P10004002 yCommunity24499/11010068
Bonnick 2007643 arm: CaD/alend, CaD, alend/D10004002 yCommunity563282/28110066
Hitz 2007152 arm: CaD, P1200140012 moCommunity12234/458368
Zhu 2008663 arm: Ca, CaD, P120010005 yCommunity12079/4110075
Karkkainen 2010692 arm: CaD, control10008003 yCommunity593287/30610067

Ca=calcium; HRT=hormone replacement therapy; P=placebo; CaD=co-administered calcium and vitamin D; ex=exercise; OMC=ossein-mineral complex; D=vitamin D; IM=intramuscular; w-loss=weight loss, w-maintain=weight maintenance; vit K=vitamin K; alend=alendronate; NS=not stated.

*Total number of randomised participants in all treatment arms.

†Number of participants in relevant arms from trial in whom bone mineral density was reported.