Table 1

 Design of randomised controlled trials and selected baseline characteristics of eligible trials of dietary calcium

TrialDesignCalcium dose (mg/d)Vitamin D dose (IU/d)DurationCare settingTotal No of participants*No in Ca/controls group†% womenMean age (years)
Recker 1985162 arm: milk and controlNS2 yCommunity3016/1410059
Polley 1987174 arm: dairy, Ca, dairy/salt restrict, control≥12509 moCommunity26958/5210057
Nelson 1991182×2 factorial: ex/milk, ex/control, sed/milk, sed/control8311 yCommunity4118/1810060
Chevalley 1994193 arm: OMC/D, CaD, P/D800300 000 IM stat18 moCommunity9331/318572
Prince 1995204 arm: milk, Ca, Ca/ex, P10002 yCommunity16842/4210063
Storm 1998213 arm: milk, Ca, PNS2 yCommunity4020/2010071
Castelo-Branco 1999223 arm: OHC, Ca, control33202 yCommunity6017/1610055
Cleghorn 2001232 arm: milk, control7001 yCommunity14256/5910052
Lau 2001242 arm: milk, control80024 moCommunity20095/9010057
Chee 2003252 arm: milk, control120024 moCommunity20091/8210059
Albertazzi 2004263 arm: OHC, Ca, P5006 moCommunity15352/5010068
Daly 2006272 arm: milk, control10008002 yCommunity16785/82062
Manios 2007283 arm: dairy, Ca, control120030012 moCommunity11239/3610061
Kukuljan 2009292×2 factorial: milk, milk/ex, ex, control100080012 moCommunity18090/90061
Gui 2012303 arm: milk, soy milk, control25018 moCommunity141100/4110056

Ca=calcium; restrict=restriction; ex=exercise; sed=sedentary; OMC=ossein-mineral complex; D=vitamin D; CaD=co-administered Ca and vitamin D; P=placebo; IM=intramuscular; OHC=ossein-hydroxyapatite complex.

*Total number of randomised participants in all treatment arms.

†Number of participants in relevant arms from trial in whom bone mineral density was reported.