Table 3

Effects of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density at different sites according to sex

MaleFemale
SiteNo of studiesNo of participantsSMD* 95% CI)No of studiesNo of participantsSMD* (95% CI)
At end of supplementation
Femoral neck (g/cm2)2375–0.05 (–0.26 to 0.15)65240.19 (0.02 to 0.37)
Lumbar spine (g/cm2)23750.06 (–0.14 to 0.26)76150.11 (–0.05 to 0.27)
Total body (g)11430.06 (–0.27 to 0.39)76320.18 (0.02 to 0.34)
Upper limb (g/cm2)34590.03 (–0.15 to 0.21)66240.15 (–0.01 to 0.31)
After withdrawal of supplementation
Femoral neck (g/cm2)1226–0.03 (–0.29 to 0.23)22210.31 (0.04 to 0.58)
Lumbar spine (g/cm2)12260.05 (–0.22 to 0.31)22210.04 (–0.22 to 0.31)
Upper limb (g/cm2)23100.08 (–0.32 to 0.49)22000.30 (0.02 to 0.58)
  • * SMD=standardised mean difference; an SMD of 0.3 is regarded as small.22

  • † Significant at P<0.05.