Table 1

Summary of studies included in sensitivity analysis

Number of comparisonsNumber of similar resultsNumber better in RCTNumber worse in RCT
Selection bias:
Low risk66
No imbalance221912
Adjusted results12742
Partially controlled181521
Poorly controlled33303
Detection bias:
Low risk*786683
Partially met, similarly measured5321
High risk88
Exclusion bias:
No losses to follow up383242
1 person to 20% lost to follow up333021
> 20% loss to follow up11101
Unclear9441
Reasons for non-participation:
Refused271872
Refused because of preference232012
RCT versus preference trial16151
Not invited88
Treated by non-participating clinicians11
Different skills required for treatment:
Surgery and procedures282512
Drug treatment221741
Radiology141211
Usual care981
Counselling and education88
Watchful waiting761
Different clinical area:
Oncology282332
Obstetrics and gynaecology141221
Cardiology131021
Other internal medicine1192
Psychology and drug misuse99
Paediatrics871
Respiration22
  • RCT=randomised controlled trial.

  • * Outcomes were measured in same way.