Table 3

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (home and/or work) and respiratory disease (including deaths from lung cancer, larynx or pharynx cancer, and deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) or lung cancer alone, in whole cohort (n=123 479, 131 cases) and in nested case-control study (n=114 cases, 286 controls)

Hazard ratios (95% CI)Odds ratios* (95% CI)
Respiratory diseaseLung cancerRespiratory diseaseLung cancer
Exposure to ETS at home and/or at work (yes/no):
Model I1.21 (0.82 to 1.78)1.25 (0.80 to 1.96)1.64 (0.99 to 2.69)1.75 (0.96 to 3.18)
Model II:
All1.30 (0.87 to 1.95)1.34 (0.85 to 2.13)1.70 (1.02 to 2.82)1.76 (0.96 to 3.23)
Former smokers2.32 (1.07 to 5.01)2.32 (0.94 to 5.71)3.11 (1.06 to 9.18)NA
Never smokers1.02 (0.63 to 1.66)1.05 (0.60 to 1.82)1.45 (0.75 to 2.80)1.42 (0.63 to 3.20)
Men1.72 (0.81 to 3.66)1.96 (0.68 to 5.67)1.79 (0.63 to 5.09)NA
Women1.15 (0.71 to 1.86)1.20 (0.71 to 2.02)1.46 (0.76 to 2.80)NA
ETS only at home1.11 (0.71 to 1.74)1.03 (0.60 to 1.76)1.10 (0.60 to 2.02)0.82 (0.37 to 1.82)
ETS only at work1.55 (1.03 to 2.32)1.65 (1.04 to 2.63)2.05 (1.22 to 3.47)2.17 (1.16 to 4.08)
  • * Computed by conditional logistic regression analysis.

  • † Adjusted by sex, age (plus or minus 5 years), smoking (former or never smoker), country, and school years.

  • ‡ Additionally adjusted by energy intake, fruit and vegetables consumption, and physical activity.