Table 4

Dichotomous primary study outcomes for 114 hospitals that participated in trial of quality improvement intervention for surfactant treatment of preterm infants, in the assessment year, 2001.* Values are percentages unless stated otherwise

Odds ratios (95% CI)
Intervention hospitals (n=57)Control hospitals (n=57)UnadjustedAdjusted
Surfactant given in delivery room:
All infants154.718.25.41 (3.30 to 8.87)5.38 (2.84 to 10.20)
Inborn infants58.018.46.15 (3.62 to 10.43)6.16 (3.03 to 12.54)
Outborn infants26.917.21.77 (1.01 to 3.11)1.99 (1.12 to 3.53)
First dose of surfactant given after 2 hours:
All infants9.424.90.31 (0.21 to 0.45)0.35 (0.24 to 0.53)
Inborn infants7.423.40.26 (0.17 to 0.40)0.29 (0.18 to 0.47)
Outborn infants26.436.00.64 (0.40 to 1.00)0.57 (0.37 to 0.89)
Infant mortality:
All infants17.818.20.97 (0.81 to 1.16)1.01 (0.79 to 1.30
Inborn infants17.517.70.99 (0.82 to 1.19)1.08 (0.83 to 1.42)
Outborn infants20.220.30.99 (0.68 to 1.45)0.74 (0.52 to 1.06)
Infant pneumothorax:
All infants6.67.40.89 (0.68 to 1.17)0.89 (0.67 to 1.18)
Inborn infants6.67.20.92 (0.69 to 1.22)0.92 (0.68 to 1.25)
Outborn infants6.29.10.66 (0.39 to 1.13)0.58 (0.33 to 1.03)
  • * Outcomes reported by study arm and birth location for clusters. Each hospital is considered a cluster.

  • † Covariates in adjusted model include gestational age, maternal ethnicity (black, Hispanic, white, or other), teaching hospital (yes or no), type of neonatal intensive care unit (A, B, or C), and average annual volume of very low birthweight infants.

  • ‡ Inborn infants are those born in the participating hospitals. Outborn infants are those born at another hospital and transferred to a participating hospital after birth.