Table 5

Secondary study outcomes for 114 hospitals that participated in trial of quality improvement intervention for surfactant treatment of preterm infants, in the assessment year, 2001.* Values are percentages unless stated otherwise

OutcomeIntervention hospitals (n=57)Control hospitals (n=57)Odds ratios (95% CI)
UnadjustedAdjusted
Delivery room resuscitation:
Oxygen95.995.90.99 (0.53 to 1.85)1.00 (0.47 to 2.15)
Bag or mask68.464.91.17 (0.83 to 1.66)1.23 (0.86 to 1.76)
Endotracheal intubation78.069.81.54 (1.16 to 2.03)1.65 (1.19 to 2.29)
Adrenaline (epinephrine)5.76.70.86 (0.60 to 1.22)0.94 (0.65 to 1.36)
Cardiac compression8.48.50.99 (0.72 to 1.36)1.03 (0.74 to 1.44)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation89.388.31.11 (0.82 to 1.49)1.14 (0.83 to 1.57)
Apgar score ≥3 at 1 minute32.530.31.10 (0.95 to 1.29)1.20 (0.99 to 1.44)
Respiratory:
Chronic lung disease at 36 weeks42.138.51.16 (0.89 to 1.52)1.16 (0.87 to 1.55)
Respiratory distress syndrome86.688.50.84 (0.55 to 1.27)0.76 (0.49 to 1.19)
Conventional ventilation86.686.01.05 (0.77 to 1.44)1.10 (0.78 to 1.56)
High frequency ventilation31.330.71.03 (0.73 to 1.46)1.08 (0.65 to 1.80)
Corticosteroids given for chronic lung disease24.926.70.91 (0.68 to 1.22)0.87 (0.63 to 1.20)
Surfactant given at any time85.179.51.47 (1.07 to 2.01)1.55 (1.08 to 2.23)
Infection:
Late bacterial13.213.70.95 (0.73 to 1.25)0.96 (0.73 to 1.28)
Coagulase negative staphylococci17.516.41.08 (0.80 to 1.45)1.04 (0.77 to 1.41)
Fungal3.34.40.75 (0.51 to 1.09)0.86 (0.59 to 1.25)
Nosocomial26.925.61.07 (0.84 to 1.36)1.05 (0.83 to 1.33)
Neurological:
Cystic periventricular leucomalacia4.55.50.82 (0.56 to 1.19)0.85 (0.58 to 1.26)
Intraventricular haemorrhage28.032.50.81 (0.66 to 0.99)0.80 (0.63 to 1.00)
Severe intraventricular haemorrhage10.114.20.68 (0.56 to 0.83)0.70 (0.56 to 0.87)
Other:
Patent ductus arteriosus44.438.51.27 (0.99 to 1.63)1.27 (0.96 to 1.67)
Retinopathy of prematurity57.256.31.04 (0.79 to 1.38)0.97 (0.71 to 1.35)
Severe retinopathy of prematurity13.513.11.04 (0.78 to 1.38)1.04 (0.71 to 1.52)
  • * Outcomes reported by study arm and birth location for clusters. Each hospital is considered a cluster.

  • † Covariates in adjusted model include gestational age, maternal ethnicity (black, Hispanic, white, or other), teaching hospital (yes or no), type of neonatal intensive care unit (A, B, or C), and average annual volume of very low birthweight infants.