Table 2

Incidence of primary end point (combined and in its separate components) and secondary end points, according to treatment group. Values are numbers (percentages) of participants in whom events occurred, unless stated otherwise

Ramipril (n=2443)Placebo (n=2469)Relative risk (95% confidence interval)P value
Primary end point
Combined362 (14.8)377 (15.3)0.97 (0.85 to 1.11)0.66
Cardiovascular death*141 (5.8)133 (5.4)1.07 (0.85 to 1.35)0.58
Myocardial infarction (non-fatal)52 (2.1)59 (2.4)0.89 (0.61 to 1.29)0.57
Stroke (non-fatal)89 (3.6)84 (3.4)1.07 (0.80 to 1.44)0.70
Heart failure (non-fatal)76 (3.1)91 (3.7)0.84 (0.62 to 1.14)0.27
End stage renal failure4 (0.2)10 (0.4)0.40 (0.13 to 1.30)0.18
Secondary end points
Total mortality334 (13.7)324 (13.1)1.04 (0.90 to 1.20)0.57
Cardiovascular death§179 (7.3)175 (7.1)1.03 (0.85 to 1.26)0.77
Myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal)61 (2.5)78 (3.2)0.79 (0.57 to 1.10)0.16
Stroke (fatal and non-fatal)118 (4.8)116 (4.7)1.03 (0.80 to 1.32)0.83
Heart failure(fatal and non-fatal)85 (3.5)102 (4.1)0.84 (0.64 to 1.12)0.22
End stage renal failure (fatal and non-fatal)11 (0.5)12 (0.5)0.93 (0.41 to 2.10)0.85
Revascularisation procedures (cardiac or peripheral)179 (7.3)201 (8.1)0.90 (0.74 to 1.09)0.29
Transient neurological ischaemic episode22 (0.9)21 (0.9)1.06 (0.58 to 1.92)0.85
Loss of vision of one eye8 (0.3)8 (0.3)1.01 (0.38 to 2.69)0.98
Doubling of serum creatinine48 (2.0)60 (2.4)0.81 (0.56 to 1.12)0.27
Amputation beyond metatarsophalangeal joint28 (1.1)26 (1.1)1.09 (0.64 to 1.85)0.75
  • Different numbers of the same event appear as primary or as secondary end points because only the first event in one participant is a component of the primary end point. However, a participant might have had several other events later. These are added to the numbers of secondary end points

  • * Including sudden death (77 events (3.2%) in the ramipril group and 77 (3.1%) in the placebo group) and death of unknown origin (32 (1.3%) events in the ramipril group and 30 (1.2%) in the placebo group).

  • † Requiring hospital admission or the intervention of a mobile coronary care unit.

  • ‡ Requiring haemodialysis or kidney transplantation.

  • § Death from a cardiovascular cause, sudden death, or death from an unknown cause.