Table 2

Outcomes for 301 patients given emergency intramuscular sedation with midazolam or haloperidol-promethazine mix because of agitation and dangerous behaviour. Values are number (percentage) of patients unless stated otherwise

Patient outcomesMidazolam (n=151)Haloperidol-promethazine (n=150)Relative risk (CI)*Difference in % risk (CI)*
By 20 minutes after injection
Tranquil or asleep134 (89)101 (67)1.32 (1.16 to 1.49)22 (12 to 30)
Asleep93 (62)43 (29)2.15 (1.48 to 3.11)33 (19 to 47)
Serious adverse effect1 (1)1 (1)
Unknown1 (1)2 (1)
By 40 minutes after injection
Tranquil or asleep141 (93)124 (83)1.13 (1.01 to 1.26)10 (1 to 20)
Asleep118 (78)69 (46)1.70 (1.32 to 2.19)32 (18 to 46)
Unknown1 (1)2 (1)
By 60 minutes after injection
Tranquil or asleep141 (93)131 (87)1.07 (0.97 to 1.18)6 (-3 to 15)
Asleep120 (79)83 (55)1.44 (1.16 to 1.78)24 (11 to 38)
Unknown1 (1)2 (1)
By 120 minutes after injection
Tranquil or asleep144 (95)138 (92)1.04 (0.96 to 1.12)3 (-4 to 11)
Asleep125 (83)95 (63)1.31 (1.08 to 1.57)20 (7 to 32)
No additional tranquillising drugs149 (99)143 (95)1.04 (0.98 to 1.09)4 (-2 to 8)
Not needing restraints118 (78)110 (73)1.07 (0.90 to 1.26)5 (-8 to 18)
Unknown1 (1)2 (1)
By 24 hours after injection
No other episode of aggression:107 (71)111 (74)0.96 (0.80 to 1.15)-3 (-16 to 10)
Unknown2 (1)7 (5)
Doctor not called to see patient:100 (66)107 (71)0.93 (0.76 to 1.13)-5 (-19 to 8)
Unknown2 (1)4 (3)
Accepting oral medication:135 (89)139 (93)0.96 (0.88 to 1.06)-4 (-12 to 5)
Unknown7 (5)5 (3)
By 2 weeks after injection
Discharged73 (48)69 (46)1.05 (0.77 to 1.44)2 (-12 to 17)
Unknown03 (2)
  • * 99% confidence intervals, except for primary outcome (tranquil or asleep by 20 minutes), which is 95%.