Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 549 heroin addicts who participated in study, according to prescribed treatment

InhalingInjecting
A* (n=139)B (n=117)C (n=119)A* (n=98)B (n=76)
Age (years)39.640.039.138.039.2
Male (%)79.178.681.581.682.9
Ethnic Dutch (%)82.780.280.594.996.1
Employed (%)6.55.212.18.28.1
Stable housing (%)90.689.786.484.777.6
Regular drug use (years):
Heroin16.716.916.415.416.6
Methadone12.412.911.911.712.6
Cocaine8.09.37.810.19.6
Amphetamines1.51.41.83.03.1
Drug use in past month (days):
eroin25.925.925.525.925.2
Methadone28.728.929.129.129.1
Cocaine15.215.213.418.015.5
Amphetamines0.10.10.71.20.9
Previous drug free treatment (%)59.454.758.867.065.8
Ever overdosed (%)30.928.229.449.047.4
Additional need for addiction treatment (%)§66.965.872.963.357.9
Physical health:
Mean MAP-HSS11.610.611.811.112.1
HIV positive (%)9.93.95.613.313.3
Somatic medication (%)28.821.424.422.519.7
Additional need for somatic treatment (%) §29.224.836.439.835.5
Mental health:
Mean SCL-9070.768.479.472.776.3
Ever attempted suicide (%)17.325.626.940.235.5
Psychiatric medication (%)33.132.538.735.734.7
Any current DSM-IV diagnosis (%)27.728.236.134.031.6
Additional need for psychiatric treatment (%)§26.626.531.932.739.6
Social functioning:
Illegal activities in past month (days)11.211.48.411.512.9
Contact with non-users in past month (days)16.315.814.113.712.1
Median No of charges for theft10.06.08.010.015.0
Median time incarcerated (months)12.012.010.019.013.0
  • MAP-HSS=Maudsley addiction profile-health symptoms score17 ; SCL-90=symptom checklist-90 item version18-20 ; DSM-IV=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition.

  • *12 months of methadone alone.

  • †11 months of methadone plus heroin.

  • ‡6 months of methadone alone, followed by 6 months of methadone plus heroin.

  • § Based on ASI severity rating ≥5.