Table 3.

Improvement in primary outcome measures after 52 weeks

Mean (SD) effectsDifference (95% CI)
Outcome measureManual therapyPhysiotherapyGeneral practitioner careManual therapy v physiotherapyManual therapy v general practitioner carePhysiotherapy v general practitioner care
Perceived recovery71.7 (43)62.7 (37)56.3 (36)9.0 (7.9 to 25.8)15.4 (1.3 to 32.1)6.5 (10.9 to 23.8)
Pain intensity*4.2 (2.4)3.1 (2.9)4.1 (2.9)1.2 (0.1 to 2.1)0.1 (0.8 to 1.1)1.0 (2.0 to 0.002)
Functional disability*7.2 (7.5)6.3 (8.0)8.5 (7.4)0.9 (1.9 to 3.6)1.4 (4.1 to 1.3)2.2 (5.0 to 0.5)
Utility0.82 (0.13)0.79 (0.14)0.77 (0.16)0.03 (0.04 to 0.09)0.05 (0.01 to 0.11)0.02 (0.04 to 0.09)
  • *Differences in mean effects within each intervention between baseline and 52 weeks.