Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of families with a young child (<4 years old) and a mother who smoked who received either three months of counselling or standard advice to reduce smoking in the presence of the child. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise

VariableCounselled families (n=53)Control families (n=55)
Ethnic group:
Black11 (21)12 (22)
Hispanic14 (26)16 (29)
White25 (47)26 (47)
Other3 (6)1 (2)
Children's sex (girls)31 (58)26 (47)
Single parent families23 (43)27 (49)
Employed mothers8 (15)5 (9)
Mothers' education:
Less than high school or GED*22 (42)20 (36)
High school or GED*14 (26)13 (24)
Trade school4 (8)4 (7)
Some college12 (23)16 (29)
College graduate1 (2)2 (4)
Mean (SD) age:
Mothers' (years)28.5 (6.6)29.0 (6.9)
Children's (months)14.1 (7.0)14.3 (6.9)
Mean (SD) No of times mothers had stopped smoking for 24 hours11.6 (25.0)19.4 (48.0)
Mothers' mean No of cigarettes smoked/day12.6†12.2†
  • * GED=Generalised equivalency degree.

  • † Means are squared estimates of means adjusted by square root transformation and so do not include standard deviations. These estimates provide an indication of the levels in clinically meaningful units.