Table 5

Age adjusted rates per 100 women for obstetric intervention among multiparas at low risk

Private patients
Labour management before birthManagement at birthPrivate hospitals (n=8439)Public hospitals (n=6775)Public patients (all hospitals) (n=35 825)
No epidural, no induction*No episiotomy
Vaginal birth82.585.892.0
Forceps or vacuum1.61.90.8
Vaginal birth11.99.54.9
Forceps or vacuum1.31.30.7
Caesarean section after labour2.71.51.6
Subgroup rate47.659.872.4
No epidural, induction*No episiotomy
Vaginal birth79.380.087.9
Forceps or vacuum1.52.11.3
Vaginal birth15.514.26.3
Forceps or vacuum1.91.61.5
Caesarean section after labour1.82.13.0
Subgroup rate19.920.114.9
Epidural, no induction*No episiotomy
Vaginal birth51.452.961.0
Forceps or vacuum10.415.85.2
Vaginal birth11.57.93.8
Forceps or vacuum11.29.78.2
Caesarean section after labour15.413.721.8
Subgroup rate8.15.93.4
Epidural, induction*No episiotomy
Vaginal birth55.264.462.3
Forceps or vacuum13.77.19.2
Vaginal birth14.011.65.3
Forceps or vacuum8.98.98.0
Caesarean section after labour8.28.015.2
Subgroup rate11.25.13.0
Rate for caesarean section before labour13.09.16.3
  • * Induction includes both induction and augmentation of labour with oxytocics or other measures (for example, Foley's catheter) with or without artificial rupture of membranes, but does not include augmentation or induction with artificial rupture of membranes alone.