Table 2

Birth characteristics and outcomes among primiparas at low risk. Values are percentages

Private patients
Birth characteristics and outcomesPrivate hospitals (n=6548)Public hospitals (n=4798)Public patients (all hospitals) (n=20 354)
Maternal age (years)*:
20-2410.616.340.6
25-2948.947.040.0
30-3440.636.719.3
Type of labour*:
Spontaneous47.054.163.8
Augmented23.121.819.7
Induced25.721.115.7
No labour4.12.91.4
Delivery*:
Vaginal49.760.072.6
Forceps22.515.010.5
Vacuum11.411.16.8
Caesarean section before labour4.12.91.5
Caesarean section after labour12.310.98.5
Epidural*50.835.225.1
Episiotomy*46.639.828.6
Third degree tear*1.41.82.3
Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes*1.31.01.8
  • * Distribution of these factors significantly different (P<0.001) among three groups with χ2 tests.

  • † Among vaginal births.