Table 2

Availability of evidence or information on primary care interventions

Availability of information
InterventionRelative risk reductionAbsolute risk reduction% of patients eligibleCurrent uptake rate in those eligibleCost effectiveness Riskreduction translated to improved health outcome at population levelComments
Aspirin for patients at high risk of coronary or ischaemic cerebrovascular eventsfYesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Control of hypertensionYesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Advice on stopping smoking or nicotine replacement therapyYesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors for patients with heart failureYesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Statins for patients at high risk of coronary heart disease (secondary prevention)YesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Statins for patients at low risk of coronary heart disease (primary prevention)YesYesYesNoYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in non-valvular atrial fibrillationYesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Influenza vaccination for those aged >65YesYesYesYesYesYesFurther details in tables 3 and 4
Diabetes careYesYesYesYesYesNoDiabetes care in general practice can achieve standards of care equivalent to or better than hospital outpatient care but does not lead to reduced mortality or hospital admissions.17 Difficult to translate other reported end points such as glycaemic control and losses to follow up into outcomes such as non-fatal events
Cervical screeningNoNoYesYesYesNoObservational data suggest that cervical screening programmes are effective. Difficult to translate such observational data into relative and absolute risk reductions
Brief interventions to reduce alcohol consumptionYesYesYesYesYesNoUnable to translate evidence on efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption18 into improved health outcomes (fatal and non-fatal events) at population level
Contraceptive prescribing with family planning adviceNoNoYesYesYesNoExperimental and observational evidence of relative effectiveness of different contraceptives. Difficult to translate such data into relative and absolute risk reductions between users and non-users
Immunisations (except against influenza in elderly)NoNoYesYesYesNoObservational data strongly suggest that immunisation programmes are effective.19 Difficult to translate such observational data into relative and absolute risk reductions
Treatment of obesity in adultsYesYesYesYesYesNoUnable to translate evidence of efficacy in reducing weight20 into improved health outcomes (fatal and non-fatal events) at population level
  • Yes=evidence or information readily available. No=evidence or information not readily available.