Numbers of deaths at age 40-79 during 1992-95, mortality, mortality risk ratios (95% confidence intervals), and percentages of mortality attributed to smoking

Annual mortality/1000Risk ratio for ever smokers v non-smoker% of deaths attributed to smoking
Cause of death4No of deaths*SmokerNon-smokers
Neoplastic20183.132.491.26 (1.13 to 1.55)16
Respiratory§25303.782.731.38 (1.25 to 1.55)22
Vascular25433.823.391.13 (1.07 to 1.20)**9
Other21422.942.881.02 (0.92 to 1.13)0
All deaths923313.6711.491.19 (1.13 to 1.25)12
  • *6997 deaths in smokers and 2236 deaths in never smokers.

  • †Standardised to the non-smoker distribution (so the rate in smokers is the risk ratio times the rate in non-smokers).

  • ‡Estimated using maximum likelihood, stratified for area, age, and alcohol. Such stratified analyses of this nationally representative study allow for the heterogeneity between urban and rural, and between particular areas.

  • §Including tuberculosis and respiratory heart disease.4

  • ¶P<0.0001 compared with never smokers.

  • **P=0.01 compared with never smokers.