Table 3

Mortality ratios (95% confidence interval) for smoking and six dietary factors after adjustment for age and sex and for age, sex, and smoking

All cause mortalityIschaemic heart diseaseCerebrovascular diseaseAll malignant neoplasmsLung cancerColorectal cancerBreast cancer (women)
FactorAge and sexAge, sex, and smoking+Age and sexAge, sex, and smoking+Age and sexAge, sex, and smoking+Age and sexAge, sex, and smoking+Age and sexAge, sex, and smoking+Age and sexAge, sex, and smoking+Age and sexAge, sex, and smoking+
Current smoker:1.52 (1.34 to 1.73)**-1.43(1.11 to 1.84)**-1.53 (1.02 to 2.29)*-1.45 (1.16 to 1.82)**-5.43 (3.22 to 9.14)**-0.92 (0.45 to 1.87)-1.01 (0.50 to 2.02)-
Pipe or cigars only1.22 (0.96 to 1.55)-1.49 (1.02 to 2.18)*-1.44 (0.72 to 2.91)-1.07 (0.67 to 1.71)-1.96 (0.67 to 5.73)-0.72 (0.17 to 3.05)-&
1-14 cigarettes/ day++1.39 (1.15 to 1.69)**-1.42 (0.97 to 2.09)-1.05 (0.53 to 2.06)-1.42 (1.03 to 1.96)*-3.70 (1.68 to 8.15)**-1.21 (0.48 to 3.01)-1.25 (0.57 to 2.74)-
15 cigarettes/day2.00 (1.66 to 2.42)**-1.36 (0.87 to 2.12)-2.42 (1.36 to 4.31)**-1.82 (1.30 to 2.55)**-11.28 (6.28 to 20.28)**-0.68 (0.17 to 2.79)-0.60 (0.16 to 2.30)-
Vegetarian0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)1.04 (0.93 to 1.16)0.82 (0.66 to 1.02)0.85 (0.68 to 1.06)0.91 (0.66 to 1.27)0.96 (0.69 to 1.34)1.07 (0.89 to 1.29)1.12 (0.93 to 1.35)0.79 (0.46 to 1.35)1.07 (0.62 to 1.86)0.79 (0.47 to 1.33)0.78 (0.46 to 1.32)1.64 (1.01 to 2.67)*1.65 (1.01 to 2.70)*
Wholemeal bread daily0.83(0.75 to 0.93)**0.88 (0.78 to 0.98)*0.82 (0.66 to 1.02)0.85 (0.68 to 1.06)1.02 (0.72 to 1.45)1.08 (0.75 to 1.54)0.87 (0.72 to 1.06)0.91 (0.75 to 1.11)0.76 (0.45 to 1.28)1.07 (0.63 to 1.83)1.08 (0.63 to 1.86)1.07 (0.62 to 1.85)1.08 (0.65 to 1.81)1.08 (0.64 to 1.81)
Bran cereals daily0.97 (0.86 to 1.10)1.00 (0.89 to 1.13)0.98 (0.78 to 1.24)0.99 (0.79 to 1.25)0.91 (0.63 to 1.31)0.93 (0.65 to 1.34)0.85 (0.69 to 1.05)0.87 (0.70 to 1.08)0.40 (0.19 to 0.84)*0.48 (0.23 to 1.01)1.05 (0.61 to 1.81)1.04 (0.60 to 1.80)0.68 (0.37 to 1.24)0.67 (0.37 to 1.24)
Nuts or dried fruit daily0.93 (0.83 to 1.04)0.98 (0.88 to 1.09)0.86 (0.70 to 1.07)0.89 (0.72 to 1.11)0.76 (0.54 to 1.06)0.80 (0.57 to 1.12)0.97 (0.80 to 1.17)1.01 (0.84 to 1.23)0.53 (0.29 to 0.95)*0.72 (0.40 to 1.31)0.75 (0.44 to 1.27)0.74 (0.43 to 1.25)1.40 (0.86 to 2.29)1.41 (0.86 to 2.30)
Fresh fruit daily0.74 (0.66 to 0.84)**0.79 (0.70 to 0.90)**0.73 (0.58 to 0.93)**0.76 (0.60 to 0.97)*0.63 (0.44 to 0.91)*0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)*0.77 (0.62 to 0.95)*0.81 (0.65 to 1.01)0.40 (0.24 to 0.68)**0.59 (0.34 to 1.02)0.73 (0.41 to 1.30)0.71 (0.40 to 1.27)0.75 (0.42 to 1.34)0.74 (0.41 to 1.32)
Raw salad daily0.87 (0.78 to 0.97)*0.91 (0.82 to 1.02)0.72 (0.58 to 0.89)**0.74 (0.59 to 0.92)**1.15 (0.83 to 1.59)1.21 (0.87 to 1.68)0.92 (0.76 to 1.11)0.96 (0.79 to 1.16)0.67 (0.39 to 1.16)0.90 (0.51 to 1.58)0.79 (0.48 to 1.33)0.78 (0.47 to 1.31)1.15 (0.71 to 1.88)1.15 (0.70 to 1.87)
  • *Two tailed P<0.05,

  • ** P<0.01.

  • +Categories: non smoker; pipe and/or cigars only; 1-14 cigarettes/ day; >/=15 cigarettes/ day.

  • ++Includes current cigarette smokers, amount unknown (8 men and 13 women).

  • & The 33 women who smoked pipe or cigar only were included in the category 1-14 cigarettes/day along with the 13 women who did not declare how much they smoked.