Table 2

 Patterns of antidiabetic agents received between cohort entry and year before index date among cases of bladder cancer and matched controls*

Antidiabetic agentsNo (%) of cases (n=376)No (%) of controls (n=6699)Crude rate ratio (95% CI)
Metformin only119 (31.7)2104 (31.4)1.00 (reference)
Sulfonylureas only69 (18.4)1564 (23.4 )0.62 (0.44 to 0.87)
Metformin and sulfonylureas99 (26.3)1688 (25.2)0.98 (0.72 to 1.33)
Metformin and thiazolidinediones12 (3.2)231 (3.5)0.99 (0.53 to 1.86)
Metformin, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones23 (6.1)381 (5.7)1.06 (0.64 to 1.75)
Metformin, sulfonylureas, and insulin15 (4.0)211 (3.2)1.04 (0.56 to 1.91)
Metformin, sulfonylureas, and other agents†7 (1.9)72 (1.1)1.49 (0.65 to 3.44)
Metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin9 (2.4)80 (1.2)1.86 (0.86 to 4.02)
Other treatment combinations23 (6.1)368 (5.5)1.03 (0.63 to 1.68)

*Matched on year of birth, year of cohort entry, sex, and duration of follow-up.

†This category included meglitinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues, and guar gum. These categories are mutually exclusive.