Table 1

 Preventable and avoidable major chronic conditions, their main risk factors, and the action needed to reduce these risk factors

Chronic conditionsModifiable risk factors and behavioursHow best to reduce risk factor
Preventable
Ischaemic heart diseaseHypercholesterolaemia, obesity, low grade systemic inflammation Adopt a balanced diet, be physically active, avoid smoking
HypertensionHigh salt intakeReduce salt intake
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseSmokingAvoid smoking
Type 2 diabetesObesity (especially visceral obesity)Be physically active, adopt a balanced diet
Peripheral vascular diseaseSmokingAvoid smoking
Osteoporosis
Lack of vitamin DGet more exposure to sun
Inactive lifestyleBe physically active
SmokingAvoid smoking
Stroke
HypertensionReduce salt intake
Inactive lifestyleBe physically active
May be preventable
Arthritis (osteoarthritis)ObesityAdopt a balanced diet, be physically active
DepressionLack of social engagement, isolationAdopt a social life, take physical activity
Vascular dementiaCerebrovascular disease, hypertension, smoking, obesityAdopt a balanced diet, be physically active, avoid smoking