Table 2

 Result of review of eight cohort studies. All specific malformations found in literature review were classified to 75 malformation subgroups; 49 subgroups had at least one case and five (shown here) showed significant increased prevalence compared with EUROCAT population. Figures are numbers of cases (prevalence per 1000 registrations)

Literature (n=2680)EUROCAT* (n=3 869 947)P value†
Anomalous pulmonary venous return2 (0.75)134 (0.03)<0.001
Cleft lip, with or without palate7 (2.61)3634 (0.94)0.012
Diaphragmatic hernia3 (1.12)766 (0.20)0.007
Hypospadias12 (4.48)5418 (1.40)<0.001
Spina bifida6 (2.24)1933 (0.50)<0.001

*Excluding registrations of chromosomal malformations and malformations with reported exposure to antiepileptic drugs.

†Calculated with χ2 test with Yates’s correction.