Table 1

 Overview of included cohort studies on effects of carbamazepine taken during pregnancy on congenital malformations

StudyCountryIncluded yearsExposed to carbamazepine monotherapy
NumberMalformedRate (95% CI)
Samrén 199714Berlin and Magdeburg, Germany; Helsinki, Finland; Rotterdam, Netherlands; epilepsy institutes1972-90280227.9 (5.2 to 11.6)
Diav-Citrin 200111Israeli Teratogen Information ServiceJan 1989-March 199910865.6 (2.6 to 11.8)
Kaaja 200312Finland, HelsinkiJan 1980-Sep 1998363102.8 (1.5 to 5.0)
Sabers 2004136 hospitals, Denmark,Sep 1996-May 20001800 (0.0 to 17.6)
Wide 20045SwedenJul 1995-Dec 2001703284.0 (2.8 to 5.7)
Meador 2006225 epilepsy centres, UK and USOct 1999-Feb 200411054.5 (2.0 to 10.2)
Morrow 20063Pregnancy registry, UKDec 1996-March 2005900202.2 (1.4 to 3.4)
Vajda 20074Pregnancy registry, AustraliaJul 1999-Oct 2002198105.1 (2.8 to 9.0)
Total1972-200526801013.8 (3.1 to 4.6)
Major according to EUROCAT*2680893.3 (2.7 to 4.2)

*According to EUROCAT major congenital malformation classification (based on ICD-10) 12 were only minor malformations and were therefore excluded.