Table 4

 Summary of net effects of interventions on cycling

Outcomes*
Proportion of all trips made by cycle (percentage point change)†Cycling trip frequency per personDistance cycled per personCycling time per person per dayOthers
Interventions primarily to promote cycling
Hemmingsson et al, 200925Prevalence of cycling >2 km/day at follow-up: 38.7% v 8.9% (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.0 to 15.0; P<0.001)
Prevalence of cycling >4 km/day at follow-up: 24.8% v 4.6% (P<0.001)
Groesz, 2007260Mean number of days cycled to school: no significant difference
Recreational cycling: +2.54 days/week (P=0.02)
Wilmink and Hartman, 198727+2+4%+8%
Troelsen et al, 2004-528, 29+3.4+0.06/day+0.1 km/day
Sloman et al, 200930Prevalence of cycling ≥30 min once a month or more: +2.78% (+1.89% if adjusted to most similar control area)
Prevalence of cycling ≥30 min 12 times a month or more: +0.97% (+1.65% if adjusted to most similar control area)
Rissel et al, 201031Prevalence of cycling in past year: −0.5%
Self reported prevalence of use of cycle paths: +5.1% (P<0.001)
Number of bicycles counted: +7.9% (P=0.021)
Individualised marketing of “environmentally friendly” modes of transport
Haq et al, 2004320−0.7/week+9 km/weekBicycle users: +5
TravelSmart Brisbane, 200233+1/year
Viernheim Household Transport (TAPESTRY), 200334+2+13/year
TravelSmart Perth, 200335-37+1+14/year+1 min
TravelSmart Frome, 200238, 39+1+3/year
TravelSmart Gloucester, 200440- 42+1‡+7/year0
TravelSmart Nottingham, 200443+1+6/year and +12/year¶0
TravelSmart Sheffield, 2004440+2/year0
TravelSmart Melville, 200445+2+9/year0
TravelSmart Bishopston, 200446+1+15/year0
TravelSmart Cramlington, 2004470‡+4/year0
Travel Options Kingston, 200448+2‡+21/year and +14/year¶0
TravelSmart Doncaster, 200749+1+3/year0
TravelSmart East Inverness, 200850+1+9/year0
TravelSmart Lancashire, 2006-751, 52+1 and +2§+1/year, +6/year, and +20/year§+1 min
TravelSmart Gloucester (Barton, Tredworth and White City), 200653+1+8/year+1 min
Interventions to change travel behaviour in general
Cervero et al, 200254-56−2.7 and −11.6¶
Hodgson et al, 199857+0.17/week
Shoup, 199758, 59+1.1

*Change observed in the intervention group after adjustment for change observed in the control group.

†Change, in absolute percentage points, in the proportion of all trips that were made by bicycle.

‡Same results for first and second rounds of follow-up.

§Different results for different geographical areas within the overall study.

¶Different results for first and second rounds of follow-up.