Table 3

 Characteristics of the included studies on interventions to change travel behaviour in general

StudyCountrySettingInterventionControlStudy populationStudy designPeriod of follow-upSample size*
Cervero et al, 200254-56USACommunityCity CarShare caresharing club: members paid monthly fee, deposit, and fixed rate for car hireWaiting list control group comprising people who had signed up to join but had not yet become full membersMembers and aspiring membersControlled repeat cross sectional study9 months†220
Hodgson et al, 199857EnglandCommunityMarketing campaign, based on theory of planned behaviour, that involved leaflets, exhibitions, and talks to raise awareness of environmental effects of motor transport and of alternative modes, in the context of improvements to local transport infrastructureHouseholds in comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study2 years†1218
Shoup, 199758, 59USAWorkplaceCash subsidy offered by employers to staff who did not require a parking spaceOne comparison workplace that did not implement the policyEmployeesControlled repeat cross sectional study1-3 years†1807

*Total number of participants in intervention and control groups combined at follow-up.

†Period of follow-up after inception of intervention (period of follow-up after completion either not reported or not applicable).