Table 2

 Characteristics of the included studies on individualised marketing of “environmentally friendly” modes of transport (walking, cycling, and public transport)

StudyCountrySettingInterventionControlStudy populationStudy designPeriod of follow-upSample size*
Haq et al, 200432EnglandCommunityIndividualised marketing along similar lines to IndiMark (see below)Other households in the study areas that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled cohort study6 months‡227
TravelSmart Brisbane (Marinelli and Roth), 200233AustraliaCommunityIndividualised marketing (IndiMark): provision of tailored information, advice, and incentives to encourage change in travel behaviour in interested householdsComparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled cohort study6 months†589
Viernheim Household Transport (TAPESTRY), 200334GermanyCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study6 or 8 months†987
TravelSmart Perth (Department for Planning and Infrastructure, Government of Western Australia), 200335-37AustraliaCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study6 months†1959
TravelSmart Frome (Sustrans), 200238, 39EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study2-3 months†749
TravelSmart Gloucester (Sustrans), 200440-42EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study3 and 8 months†889
TravelSmart Nottingham (Sustrans), 200443EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study§6 months†1337
TravelSmart Sheffield (Sustrans), 200444EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study§3 and 9 months†986
TravelSmart Melville (Socialdata Australia), 200445AustraliaCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study6 months†589
TravelSmart Bishopston (Sustrans), 200446EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study§3 and 9 months†993
TravelSmart Cramlington (Sustrans), 200447EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study§3 and 9 months†796
Travel Options Kingston (Socialdata), 200448EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study1 and 10 months†693
TravelSmart Doncaster (Socialdata, Sustrans), 200749EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study3 months†1871
TravelSmart East Inverness (Socialdata, Sustrans), 200850ScotlandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study6 months†1129
TravelSmart Lancashire (Socialdata, Sustrans), 2006-751, 52EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional studyVariable811
TravelSmart Gloucester (Barton, Tredworth, and White City; Sustrans), 200653EnglandCommunityIndiMark (see above)Comparison area that received no interventionHouseholdsControlled repeat cross sectional study6 months†1403

*Total number of participants in intervention and control groups combined at follow-up.

†Period of follow-up after completion of intervention.

‡Period of follow-up after inception of intervention (period of follow-up after completion either not reported or not applicable).

§Study involved elements of both repeated cross sectional and cohort designs.