Table 1

 Characteristics of the included studies of interventions primarily to promote cycling

StudyCountrySettingInterventionControlStudy populationStudy designPeriod of follow-upSample size*
Hemmingsson et al, 200925SwedenCommunityIntensive individual intervention, based on the transtheoretical model of behaviour change, that included free bikesLow intensity group support programme that included pedometersWomen with abdominal obesityRandomised controlled trial6 months†99
Groesz, 200726USASchoolBikeTexas Safe Routes to School, consisting of both educational and motivational activities by teachers based on social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, and social ecological modelsWaiting list schools that received no interventionChildren in primary schoolsCluster randomised controlled trial5 months†107
Wilmink and Hartman, 198727NetherlandsCityCycle route network extended and improvedComparison area of city that received no interventionCity residentsControlled repeat cross sectional study3 years‡2000
Troelsen et al, 2004-528, 29DenmarkCityMultifaceted urban initiative (Danish National Cycle City project)Comparison areas that received no interventionCity residentsControlled repeat cross sectional study3 years‡~1000
Sloman et al, 200930EnglandTownsVarious combinations of town-wide media campaigns, personalised travel planning, cycle repair and cycle training services, and improvements to cycle infrastructureComparison local authority areas that received no interventionAdult residentsControlled repeat cross sectional study2 years‡710
Rissel et al, 201031AustraliaCommunitySocial marketing of cycle infrastructure based on transtheoretical model of behaviour changeComparison area that received no interventionAdult residentsControlled cohort study2 years‡909

*Total number of participants in intervention and control groups combined at follow-up.

†Period of follow-up after completion of intervention.

‡Period of follow-up after inception of intervention (period of follow-up after completion either not reported or not applicable).