Table 2

 Use of medication and NHS resources in the trial of the DESMOND intervention, unit costs, and overall cost differences

Control (unadjusted)Intervention (unadjusted)Adjusted difference* (mean (95% CI))Unit cost (£ per day)Effect of difference in usage on cost (£)
Medication use (average number of months use per patient during the 12 months of the trial)
Metformin3.043.30−0.35 (−0.92 to 0.22)0.1313−1.38
Sulphonylureas0.800.79−0.15 (−0.48 to 0.18)0.1113−0.50
Glitazones0.200.20−0.08 (−0.22 to 0.06)1.1413−2.77
Lipid lowering drugs7.057.29−0.17 (−0.87 to 0.53)0.3013−1.55
Antihypertensive drugs7.507.21−0.04 (−0.48 to 0.40)0.1413−0.17
Aspirin4.434.450.21 (−0.43 to 0.84)0.04130.26
Antidepressants1.111.020.10 (−0.15 to 0.34)0.03130.09
Use of NHS resources (mean number of visits)
General practitioner4.344.330.36 (−0.29 to 1.0)301410.80
Nurse4.825.260.25 (−0.45 to 0.94)8142.00
Physiotherapist0.810.43−0.35 (−0.82 to 0.11)1614−5.60
Podiatrist1.361.23−0.19 (−0.73 to 0.35)914−1.71
Dietitian0.610.49−0.15 (−0.36 to 0.07)3714−5.55
Optician1.251.280.10 (−0.09 to 0.28)38.35373.80

DESMOND, diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed.

*Intervention less control. Medication use calculation adjusted for clustering, baseline medication use, and corresponding baseline biomedical measure (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for oral hypoglycaemic agents; total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for lipid lowering drugs; systolic blood pressure for antihypertensive drugs). Use of NHS resources adjusted for clustering, age, sex, ethnicity, and baseline covariates (body weight, smoking, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, lipid ratio, waist circumference, BMI, and use of oral hypoglycaemic agents, antihypertensive drugs, lipid lowering drugs, and antidepressants.