Table 2

 Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident gastrointestinal cancer at specified sites, in relation to prescription of oral bisphosphonates

Oral bisphosphonatesOesophagusStomachColorectum
Prescriptions*Cases/ controlsRR† (95% CI)Prescriptions*Cases/ controlsRR† (95% CI)Prescriptions*Cases/ controlsRR† (95% CI)
Not prescribedNA2864/14 3761.00NA1969/97371.00NA10 365/51 4671.00
Prescribed13.6/2.490/3451.30 (1.02 to 1.66)8.9/1.449/2700.87 (0.64 to 1.19)11.0/1.9276/15550.87 (0.77 to 1.00)
No of prescriptions:
 1-93.6/1.040/2140.93 (0.66 to 1.31)3.0/0.428/1600.84 (0.56 to 1.27)3.8/0.8164/8800.92 (0.77 to 1.09)
 ≥1021.6/3.550/1311.93 (1.37 to 2.70)16.6/2.821/1100.91 (0.57 to 1.47)21.6/3.7112/6750.82 (0.67 to 1.00)
Estimated duration of use‡:
 ≤1 year4.9/0.331/1550.98 (0.66 to 1.46)3.5/0.326/1231.03 (0.67 to 1.59)3.3/0.3120/6470.91 (0.75 to 1.11)
 1-3 years13.0/2.026/1141.12 (0.73 to 1.73)11.9/1.816/860.89 (0.52 to 1.53)11.6/1.891/5440.83 (0.66 to 1.04)
 ≥3 years22.2/4.633/762.24 (1.47 to 3.43)21.6/4.97/610.54 (0.24 to 1.18)24.3/5.165/3640.88 (0.67 to 1.15)

NA=not applicable.

*Prescriptions of bisphosphonates in cases; reported as mean number/mean years.

†All relative risks adjusted for smoking status, alcohol intake, and body mass index.

‡Time between first and last prescription.