Table 1

 Parameters used in the economic model

Mean or rangeDistributionCorresponding branches in fig 1References
Case-fatality rate (birth cohort)
Meningitis9%Beta (3,32)517
Pneumonia0%N/AN/A17
Bacteraemia with focus0%N/AN/A17
Bacteraemia without focus9%Beta (2,21)617
Mortality (non-invasive pneumonia and acute otitis media)0%N/AN/AAssumed
Case-fatality rate (age five years or older)
Meningitis9-92%Beta (age dependent)517
Pneumonia0-29%Beta (age dependent)717
Bacteraemia with focus0-33%Beta (age dependent)817
Bacteraemia without focus9-67%Beta (age dependent)617
Respiratory infections0%N/AN/AAssumed
Vaccine efficacy
Invasive pneumococcal disease (all vaccine serotypes)97.4%Log normal (SE 0.044)119
Non-invasive pneumonia (admitted to hospital)11.1%Log normal (SE 0.082)223
Non-invasive pneumonia (seen by general practitioner)6.0%Log normal (SE 0.032)323
Acute otitis media7.0%Log normal (SE 0.011)422
Direct costs (€)
Cost of hospital admission*
 Invasive pneumococcal disease (age dependent)1091-27 318Triangular (age dependent)117, 39
 Non-invasive pneumonia26-2614Triangular (severity dependent)916, 39, 40
 Acute otitis media17-381Triangular (severity dependent)416, 39, 40
Special education (annual costs)9 798-16 962Triangular (age dependent)1016
Institutional care (annual costs)39 583Triangular (29,687; 39,583; 49,478)1139
Cochlear implantation56 633Triangular (0; 0.004; 0.01)1241
Indirect costs (€)
Invasive pneumococcal disease†0-974Triangular (severity dependent)117, 39
Non-invasive pneumonia (admitted to hospital)‡0-2529Triangular (severity dependent)117, 39
Non-invasive pneumonia (seen by general practitioner)†115-315Triangular (severity dependent)916, 39
Acute otitis media†58-23Triangular (severity dependent)416, 39
Total drop in quality of life (QALYs)
Disability§0.53Beta (estimated)1142
Bilateral hearing loss (first year)§0.45Beta (estimated)128, 43
Bilateral hearing loss: cochlear device§0.18Beta (estimated)128, 43
All other hearing loss§0.09Beta (estimated)1342
Hospital admission for bacteraemia**0.0079Beta (estimated)148, 44
Hospital admission for meningitis0.0232Beta (estimated)158, 44
Hospital admission for non-invasive pneumonia¶0.006Triangular (0.001, 0.006, 0.01)28
Non-invasive pneumonia treated by a general practitioner¶0.004Triangular (0, 0.004, 0.01)38
Acute otitis media¶0.005Triangular (0, 0.005, 0.01)48
Other parameters
Increase in non-vaccine serotype of invasive pneumococcal disease ††100%Triangular (50%, 100%, 150%)N/A12, 13††
Net indirect effect for PCV-10 and PCV-13‡‡10%Triangular (0%, 10%, 30%)N/AAssumed‡‡
Discount rate health effects1.5%N/AN/A27
Discount rate costs4%N/AN/A27

*Based on the average duration of hospital stay (both intensive care and general ward) and corresponding unit costs.39 See also web table B for age specific costs of hospital admission.

†Indirect costs caused by absence at work of parents taking care of their children.

‡Indirect costs caused by absence at work of patient due to hospital admission.

§Per year.

¶Per case.

**Same QALY decrement was assumed for invasive pneumonia, bacteraemia with focus, and bacteraemia without focus.

††See also web extra 2. Indirect effects in the analysed birth cohort.

‡‡See also web extra 3. Indirect effects for those aged 5 years and older.

PCV-7/10/13, seven/10/13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine.