Table 3

 Dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium and the risk of cancers of the colorectum, colon, and rectum

Quintiles of dietary intakeP for trend
1 (reference)2345
Vitamin D intake (μg/day)<2.1≥2.1 to < 3.1≥3.1 to < 4.2≥4.2 to < 5.8≥5.8
Colorectum:
Mean (SD), median (μg/day)1.5 (0.5), 1.62.5 (0.3), 2.73.6 (0.3), 3.64.9 (0.9), 4.98.2 (2.7), 7.3
No of cases/controls251/243255/245249/244235/246230/244
Matching factors*1.001.00 (0.78 to 1.28)0.97 (0.74 to 1.26)0.90 (0.68 to 1.19)0.88 (0.66 to 1.17)0.277
Multivariate adjusted†1.001.03 (0.79 to 1.34)0.96 (0.72 to 1.28)0.88 (0.65 to 1.20)0.84 (0.60 to 1.17)0.187
Colon:
Mean (SD), median (μg/day)1.5 (0.5), 1.62.7 (0.3), 2.73.6 (0.3), 3.64.9 (0.5), 4.98.0 (2.7), 7.3
No of cases/controls165/163169/154155/149135/160148/147
Matching factors*1.001.07 (0.78 to 1.46)1.00 (0.72 to 1.40)0.82 (0.58 to 1.15)0.96 (0.67 to 1.38)0.365
Multivariate adjusted†1.001.11 (0.80 to 1.55)1.05 (0.73 to 1.50)0.83 (0.56 to 1.22)1.00 (0.66 to 1.53)0.514
Rectum:
Mean (SD), median (μg/day)1.5 (0.4), 1.62.7 (0.3), 2.73.6 (0.3), 3.64.9 (0.5), 4.98.3 (2.8), 7.4
No of cases/controls86/8086/9194/95100/8682/97
Matching factors*1.000.87 (0.57 to 1.34)0.93 (0.60 to 1.45)1.09 (0.68 to 1.76)0.78 (0.49 to 1.25)0.546
Multivariate adjusted† 1.000.85 (0.52 to 1.36)0.79 (0.48 to 1.30)0.85 (0.49 to 1.48)0.61 (0.34 to 1.09)0.142
Quintiles of dietary calcium intake (mg/day)<667.2≥667.2 to <854.7≥854.7 to <1047.6≥1047.6 to <1299.4≥1299.4
Colorectum:
Mean (SD), median (mg/day)523.9 (104.9), 544.6766.4 (53.5), 769.7949.2 (57.7), 947.71163.6 (70.3), 1163.11667.5 (358.0), 1574.4
No of cases/controls269/243258/247258/243213/245222/244
Matching factors*1.000.93 (0.72 to 1.20)0.94 (0.73 to 1.22)0.77 (0.59 to 1.00)0.81 (0.62 to 1.05)0.042
Multivariate Adjusted†1.000.88 (0.67 to 1.15)0.90 (0.67 to 1.20)0.72 (0.52 to 0.96)0.69 (0.50 to 0.96)0.016
Colon:
Mean (SD), median (mg/day)517.0 (107.1), 538.1766.0 (52.8), 769.0948.7 (57.0), 949.61161.1 (69.9), 1161.41677.1 (345.8), 1590.9
No of cases/controls164/150167/168167/163139/145135/147
Matching factors*1.000.90 (0.66 to 1.23)0.93 (0.68 to 1.27)0.87 (0.62 to 1.22)0.83 (0.60 to 1.16)0.287
Multivariate adjusted†1.000.86 (0.61 to 1.21)0.88 (0.62 to 1.27)0.80 (0.54 to 1.18)0.72 (0.47 to 1.10)0.176
Rectum:
Mean (SD), median (mg/day)534.7 (100.5), 565.5767.2 (55.0), 770.9950.1 (59.1), 947.51167.8 (71.1), 1166.81652.9 (376.5), 1536.4
No of cases/controls105/9391/7991/8074/10087/97
Matching factors*1.001.01 (0.66 to 1.55)0.99 (0.63 to 1.55)0.62 (0.40 to 0.97)0.78 (0.51 to 1.20)0.054
Multivariate adjusted†1.000.88 (0.55 to 1.42)0.91 (0.54 to 1.42)0.52 (0.30 to 0.90)0.63 (0.36 to 1.11)0.025

Data are incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval) unless stated otherwise.

*Model based on matching factors only.

†Model based on matching factors plus further adjustments for smoking status/duration/intensity, body mass index, total physical activity, education level, total dietary energy consumption, and intake of total fruits, vegetables, meats/meat products and alcohol. For dietary vitamin D and calcium, the number of total colorectal cancer case-control sets is 1220 due to missing dietary data from Greece. Values for mean and median are based on control participants only.