Table 1

 Description of cases and matched controls, by anatomical site

ColonRectum
Cases*Matched controlsP value difference†Cases*Matched controlsP value difference†
Men, n369369251251
Women, n 416416212212
Total 785785463463
Mean age, years (SD), minimum-maximum value:
 At recruitment58.5 (7.2), 30.1 to 76.958.6 (7.2), 30.3 to 76.60.6558.0 (6.8), 38.1 to 75.058.0 (6.9), 38.4 to 75.30.33
 At blood collection58.7 (7.3) 30.1 to 76.958.7 (7.3) 30.3 to 76.60.5758.1 (6.9 (38.1 to 75.0)58.0 (6.9 38.4 to 75.30.21
Mean years of follow up (SD), maximum value3.8 (2.2), 11.53.9 (2.2), 10.3
Mean BMI (SD), minimum-maximum value26.8 (4.4), 17.6 to 52.526.3 (3.9), 17.2 to 49.30.0126.5 (4.1), 15.7 to 41.126.4 (3.9), 17.6 to 44.50.52
Smoking status/duration/intensity, n (%):0.520.63
 Never smokers330 (42.0)356 (45.4)179 (38.7)179 (38.7)
 Ex-smokers, duration of smoking <10 years44 (5.6)37 (4.7)18 (3.9)21 (4.5)
 Ex-smokers, duration of smoking ≥10 years 200 (25.5)203 (25.9)127 (27.4)115 (24.8)
 Ex-smokers, missing duration of smoking19 (2.4)15 (1.9)5 (1.1)9 (1.9)
 Smokers, <15 cigarettes a day66 (8.4)71 (9.0)55 (11.9)49 (10.6)
 Smokers, ≥15 to <25 cigarettes a day66 (8.4)57 (7.3)36 (7.8)51 (11.0)
 Smokers, ≥25 cigarettes a day15 (1.9)16 (2.0)14 (3.0)13 (2.8)
 Missing smoking status45 (5.7)30 (3.8)29 (6.3)26 (5.6)
Physical activity, n (%):0.270.24
 Inactive170 (21.7)139 (17.7)80 (17.3)86 (18.6)
 Moderately inactive167 (21.3)186 (23.7)112 (24.2)93 (20.1)
 Moderately active198 (25.4)198 (25.2)100 (21.6)107 (23.1)
 Active204 (26.0)214 (27.3)145 (31.3)144 (31.1)
 Missing/unspecified46 (5.9)48 (6.1)26 (5.6)33 (7.1)
Education level, n (%):0.550.40
 None/primary292 (27.2)310 (39.5)160 (34.6)176 (38.0)
 Technical/professional186 (23.7)185 (23.6)127 (27.6)128 (27.6)
 Secondary150 (19.1)131 (16.7)68 (14.7)64 (13.8)
 University or higher130 (16.6)137 (17.5)91 (20.0)86 (18.6)
 Missing/unspecified27 (3.4)22 (2.8)16 (3.5)9 (1.9)
Dietary variables (g/day):
 Total energy (MJ/day)9.0 (3.1)8.9 (2.7)0.319.2 (2.9)9.1 (2.6)0.20
 Total vegetables183.7 (122.2)190.3 (123.3)0.20184.2 (162.9)182.9 (123.9)0.87
 Total fruits233.2 (192.1)241.2 (188.5)0.35218.9 (168.7)222.4 (168.6)0.71
 Meats and meat products112.6 (77.9)110.2 (58.2)0.48123.2 (65.6)116.8 (63.9)0.08
 Dairy and dairy products335.0 (251.7)350.7 (248.2)0.20339.3 (276.1)374.3 (271.5)0.05
 Alcohol16.1 (22.4)14.7 (19.2)0.1120.4 (25.1)16.8 (21.6)0.01
 Vitamin D (μg/day)4.1 (2.6)4.0 (2.5)0.834.2 (2.7)4.3 (2.7)0.43
 Calcium (mg/day)985.8 (429.2)1000.9 (406.4)0.46981.6 (418.0)1038.6 (439.6)0.05
 Retinol (μg/day)940.1 (938.0)918.5 (890.1)0.611011.9 (840.2)999.2 (966.5)0.83
Circulating 25-(OH)D geometric mean (5th-95th percentile):
 Vitamin D (nmol/l)51.7 (24.1-104.4)57.2 (28.0-114.8)<0.0154.9 (26.3-111.0)55.4 (24.7-116.5)0.75

Data are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.

*Indicates number of cases and matched controls for circulating 25-(OH)D analyses. The distribution of cases (colon/rectum) by country was: Denmark=186/167, France=28/8, Greece=12/14, Germany=93/55, Italy=104/42, Netherlands=93/48, Spain=78/41, UK=150/64, and Sweden=41/24.

P values for differences in means between cases and controls determined by paired t-tests, except for the categorical variables smoking status, physical activity, and education level, where P values were determined by conditional logistic regression.