Table 2

Impact of virtual reality simulator training on surgical performance and operation time. Values are medians (ranges; interquartile ranges) unless stated otherwise

Outcome measureSimulator trained group (n=11)Control group (n=10)P value*
Surgical performance:
Total score (points)33 (25-39; 32-36)23 (21-28; 22-27)<0.001
% reaching ≥30 points820
Operation time:
Total time (minutes)12 (6-24; 10-14)24 (14-38; 20-29)<0.001

Inter-rater agreement 0.79. γ-coefficient 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.98).

*Mann-Whitney U test.