Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyPublication status, registration NoNo of participantsCountryMean age (years)Men (%)Type of care, comorbiditiesSeverityMechanical ventilation at baseline (%)Treatments (dose and duration)Outcomes
Beigel 2020; ACTT-131Published, NCT042807051063USA, Denmark, UK, Greece, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Spain, Japan, Singapore58.964.3Inpatient; coronary artery disease (11.6%); congestive heart failure (5.0%); diabetes (29.7%); hypertension (49.6%); asthma (11.4%); chronic oxygen requirement (2.2%); chronic respiratory disease (7.6%)Mild/moderate (11.3%); severe (88.7%)     44.1Remdesivir (100 mg/day for 10 days); placeboMortality; mechanical ventilation; adverse effects leading to discontinuation; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Cao 2020; LOTUS China34Published, ChiCTR2000029308199China58.060.3Inpatient; cerebrovascular disease (6.5%); diabetes (11.6%)Severe (100%)     16.1Lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg twice daily for 14 days); standard careMortality; mechanical ventilation; viral clearance; duration of hospital stay; intensive care unit length of stay; duration of ventilation; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Cao 202035Published, ChiCTR-OPN-200002958043China63.058.5Inpatient; coronary artery disease (7.3%); diabetes (19.5%); hypertension (39.0%)Severe (100%)     12.2Ruxolitinib (5 mg twice daily); placeboMortality; mechanical ventilation; duration of hospital stay; duration of ventilation; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Chen 202038Preprint, ChiCTR200002955962China44.746.8Inpatient; NRMild/moderate (100%)     NRHydroxychloroquine (200 mg twice daily for 5 days); standard careAdverse effects leading to discontinuation; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Chen 202036Preprint, ChiCTR2000030254240ChinaNR46.6NR; diabetes (11.4%); hypertension (28.0%)Mild/moderate (88.6%); severe (10.2%); critical (1.3%)     NRFavipiravir (600 mg twice daily for 7 days); umifenovir (200 mg three times daily for 7 days)Mortality; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Chen 202037Preprint, ChiCTR2000029387101China42.545.5NRMild/moderate (100%)     NRRibavirin (400-600 mg three times daily for 14 days), interferon-alfa (5 mg twice daily for 14 days); lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg twice daily for 14 days), interferon-alfa (5 mg twice daily for 14 days); ribavirin (400-600 mg three times daily for 14 days), lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg twice daily for 14 days), interferon-alfa (5 mg twice daily for 14 days)Mortality; viral clearance; duration of hospital stay; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Chen 202053Published, NCT0426151730China48.670.0Inpatient; diabetes (6.7%); hypertension (26.7%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3.3%)Mild/moderate (100%)     NRHydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day for 5 days); standard careMortality; adverse events leading to discontinuation; viral clearance; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Chen 202050Preprint, ChiCTR200003005448China46.945.8Inpatient; diabetes (18.8%); hypertension (16.7%)Mild/moderate (100%)     NRChloroquine (500 mg/day for 10 days); hydroxychloroquine (200 mg twice daily for 10 days); standard careMortality; adverse events leading to discontinuation; viral clearance; duration of hospital stay; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Corral-Gudino 2020†; GLUCOCOVID49Preprint, 2020-001934-3763Spain69.861.9Inpatient; heart disease (12.7%); diabetes (17.5%); hypertension (47.6%); respiratory condition (7.9%)Critical (0%)0Methylprednisolone (40 mg twice daily for 3 days, then 20 mg twice daily for 3 days); standard careMortality; mechanical ventilation
Davoudi-Monfared 20203954Preprint, IRCT20100228003449N2892Iran57.853.1Inpatient; cardiovascular disease (28.4%); diabetes (27.2%); hypertension (38.3%); asthma (1.2%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.2%)Severe (100%)     29.6Interferon beta-1a (44 μg/ml three times weekly for 14 days); standard careMortality; mechanical ventilation; adverse events leading to discontinuation; duration of hospital stay; intensive care unit length of stay; duration of ventilation; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Goldman 2020*40Published, NCT04292899402USA, Italy, Spain, Germany, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan61.563.7Inpatient; diabetes (22.7%); hypertension (49.9%); asthma (12.3%)Severe (100%)     30.7Remdesivir (100 mg/day for 5 days); remdesivir (100 mg/day for 10 days)Mortality; mechanical ventilation; adverse events leading to discontinuation; duration of hospital stay; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Guvenmez 2020‡55Published24Turkey58.862.5Inpatient; NRNR0Lincomycin (600 mg twice daily for 5 days); azithromycin (250 mg/day for 5 days)Viral clearance
Horby 2020; RECOVERY4856Preprint, NCT043819366425UK66.163.6Inpatient; heart disease (27.3%); diabetes (24.1%); chronic lung disease (20.9%); tuberculosis (0.4%)NR     15.7Dexamethasone (6 mg/day for 10 days); standard careMortality; mechanical ventilation; duration of hospital stay
Huang 202052Published, ChiCTR2000029542     22China44.059.1Inpatient; cerebrovascular disease (4.5%); diabetes (9.1%); hypertension (18.2%)Mild/moderate (63.6%); severe (36.4%)     NRChloroquine (500 mg twice daily for 10 days); lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg twice daily for 10 days)Viral clearance; duration of hospital stay; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Hung 202041Published, NCT04276688     127China51.353.5Inpatient; coronary artery disease (7.9%); cerebrovascular disease (1.6%); diabetes (13.4%); hypertension (28.4%); obstructive sleep apnoea (1.6%); tuberculosis (1.6%)Mild/moderate (100%)0Lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg twice daily for 14 days), ribavarin (400 mg twice daily for 14 days), interferon beta-1b (1-3 mL every other day); lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg twice daily for 14 days)Mortality; mechanical ventilation; adverse effects leading to discontinuation; duration of hospital stay; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Li 2020; ELACOI5157Published, NCT04252885     86China49.446.5Inpatient; cardiovascular disease (2.3%); diabetes (2.3%); hypertension (10.5%)Mild/moderate (100%)0Lopinavir-ritonavir (200 mg and 50 mg twice daily for 7 to 14 days); umifenovir (200 mg three times daily for 7 to 14 days); standard careMortality; adverse effects leading to discontinuation; viral clearance; time to viral clearance
Lou 202042Preprint, ChiCTR2000029544     30China52.572.4Inpatient; cardiovascular disease (13.8%); diabetes (6.9%); hypertension (20.7%)NR0Baloxavir marboxil (80 mg/day for up to 3 doses on days 1, 4, and 7); favipiravir (600 mg three times daily for 14 days); standard careMortality; mechanical ventilation; viral clearance; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Silva Borba 2020*; CloroCOVID-193258Published, NCT04323527     81Brazil51.175.3Inpatient; intensive care (45.7%); cardiovascular disease (9.1%); diabetes (25.5%); hypertension (45.5%); asthma (7.4%); tuberculosis (3.6%)Severe (100%)     NRChloroquine (600 mg twice daily for 10 days); chloroquine (450 mg/day for 5 days)Mortality
Tang 20204459Published, ChiCTR2000029868     150China46.155.0Inpatient; diabetes (14.0%); hypertension (6.0%)Mild/moderate (99.0%); severe (1.0%)     NRHydroxychloroquine (800 mg/day for 14 to 21 days); standard careMortality; adverse effects leading to discontinuation; viral clearance; time to symptom or clinical improvement; time to viral clearance
Wang 202045Published, NCT04257656     237China65.059.3Inpatient; cardiovascular disease (7.2%); diabetes (23.7%); hypertension (43.2%)Severe (100%)     16.1Remdesivir (100 mg/day for 10 days); placeboMortality; mechanical ventilation; adverse events leading to discontinuation; viral clearance; duration of hospital stay; duration of ventilation; time to symptom or clinical improvement
Zheng 202047Preprint, ChiCTR2000029496     89China46.747.2InpatientMild/moderate (94.4%); severe (5.6%)     NRNovaferon (20 μg twice daily for 7 to 10 days); novaferon, lopinavir-ritonavir (200 mg and 50 mg twice daily for 7 to 10 days); lopinavir-ritonavir (200 mg and 50 mg twice daily for 7 to 10 days)Adverse events leading to discontinuation; viral clearance; time to viral clearance
Zhong 202060Preprint, ChiCTR2000029851     17China63.076.5Inpatient; cardiovascular disease (5.9%); diabetes (23.5%); hypertension (47.1%)Critical (100%)     94.1Alpha lipoic acid (1200 mg/day for 7 days); placeboMortality; adverse events leading to discontinuation
Zhou 202061Published     104China52.157.7InpatientMild/moderate (100%)     NRDiammonium glycyrrhizinate (150 mg three times daily for 14 days), lopinavir-ritonavir (500 mg twice daily for 14 days); lopinavir-ritonavir (500 mg twice daily for 14 days)Adverse events leading to discontinuation

NR=not reported

  • * Not included in network meta-analysis.

  • Not included in the current iteration of the network meta-analysis but will be included in the next iteration. Corral-Gudino et al 2020 was included in the pairwise meta-analysis of glucocorticoids.

  • This study was not included in the network meta-analyses because neither of the study drugs were studied in any other randomised trials.