Table 1

Characteristics of study population, 2014-18. Values are percentages (numbers) unless stated otherwise

CharacteristicsPrimary care physicians (n=3829)Non-surgical specialists (n=11 490)Surgical specialists (n=3483)
Mean (SD) income ($)252 872 (89 455)374 774 (164 064)516 608 (216 991)
Median (interquartile range) income ($)274 99 (224 999-324 999)399 999 (299 999-499 999)499 999324 999-674 999
Women33.6 (1286)22.7 (2710)9.2 (320)
Mean (SD) practice size (No of physicians)18.1 (−33.3)24.0 (−48.3)20.3 (−47.8)
Practice size (No of physicians):
 5-1057.8 (2210)46.2 (5304)58.9 (2050)
 11-2021.3 (817)26.4 (3036)23.7 (827)
 >2020.9 (802)27.4 (3150)17.4 (606)
Mean (SD) Medicare allowed amount, total ($)73 798 (79 523)136 991 (278 009)131 931 (142 370)
Mean (SD) years since medical school graduation20.8 (10.1)22.5 (9.9)21.4 (9.7)
Mean (SD) weekly hours worked53.8 (11.5)58.7 (12.2)65.3 (13.3)
Census region:
 North east19.6 (750)22.9 (2631)21.4 (745)
 Midwest23.5 (900)23.7 (2723)23.9 (832)
 South32.0 (1225)32.3 (3711)33.8 (1177)
 West24.9 (953)21.1 (2424)20.9 (728)

2014-18 data were from Doximity, 2014-18 data from SK&A office based physicians’ database (now IQVIA), and 2014-16 data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Medicare physician and other supplier data. Primary care physician specialties included: family medicine (n=1362), geriatric medicine (n=153), internal medicine (n=1194), medicine/pediatrics (n=84), occupational medicine (n=13), other allopathic/osteopathic medicine (n=17), pediatric emergency medicine (n=958), pediatric medicine (n=30), and preventive medicine (n=5). Surgical specialists included: colon and rectal surgery (n=84), general surgery (n=687), neurosurgery (n=277), oral and maxillofacial surgery (n=3), orthopedic surgery (n=1111), plastic surgery (n=131), thoracic surgery (n=176), urology (n=363), and vascular surgery (n=183). Physicians with specialties not already listed were considered non-surgical specialists. The five largest specialties among non-surgical specialists were anesthesiology (n=1481), cardiology (n=1204), radiology (n=989), obstetrics and gynecology (n=907), and psychiatry (n=402).

  • $ 1.00 (£0.81; €0.89).