Table 3

Individual and pooled sensitivity by serological test method and immunoglobulin class detected*

Method and studiesIgMIgGIgG or IgM
TPFNSensitivity (%) (95% CI)TPFNSensitivity (%) (95% CI)TPFNSensitivity (%) (95% CI)
ELISA (n=13 arms)
Liu181744081.3 (75.6 to 86.0)1724280.4 (74.5 to 85.1)1862886.9 (81.7 to 90.8)
Adams49281270.0 (54.6 to 81.9)34685.0 (70.9 to 92.9)34685.0 (70.9 to 92.9)
Whitman52:         
 Commercial kit745656.9 (48.3 to 65.1)963473.8 (65.7 to 80.6)983275.4 (67.3 to 82.0)
 In-house------943672.3 (64.1 to 79.3)
Liu28------1272683.0 (76.3 to 88.1)
Freeman42------95496.0 (90.0 to 98.4)
Zhao201433082.7 (76.3 to 87.6)1126164.7 (57.4 to 71.5)   
Lou3074692.5 (84.6 to 96.5)71988.8 (80.0 to 94.0)---
Zhong3846197.9 (88.9 to 99.6)46197.9 (88.9 to 99.6)---
Xiang41511577.3 (65.8 to 85.7)551183.3 (72.6 to 90.4)---
Perera48371078.7 (65.8 to 88.0)341372.3 (58.2 to 83.1)---
Guo17622075.6 (65.3 to 83.6)------
Lassauniere51---201066.7 (48.8 to 80.6)---
Pooled68919081.1 (71.8 to 88.5)64018780.6 (71.9 to 87.9)63413284.3 (75.6 to 90.9)
LFIA (n=36 arms)
Li233286982.6 (78.6 to 86.0)28011770.5 (65.9 to 74.8)3524588.7 (85.2 to 91.4)
Garcia37124321.8 (12.9 to 34.4)233241.8 (29.7 to 55.0)262947.3 (34.7 to 60.2)
Imai44607943.2 (35.2 to 51.5)2011914.4 (9.5 to 21.2)607943.2 (35.2 to 51.5)
Whitman52:         
 Commercial kit 1794961.7 (53.1 to 69.7)715755.5 (46.8 to 63.8)834564.8 (56.1 to 72.6)
 Commercial kit 2913771.1 (62.7 to 78.2)804862.5 (53.0 to 70.4)953374.2 (66.0 to 81.0)
 Commercial kit 3854167.5 (58.9 to 75.0)844266.7 (58.1 to 74.3)854167.5 (58.9 to 75.0)
 Commercial kit 4943672.3 (64.1 to 79.3)625453.4 (44.4 to 62.3)953573.1 (64.9 to 80.0)
 Commercial kit 5338228.7 (21.2 to 37.5)724462.1 (53.0 to 70.4)665056.9 (47.8 to 65.5)
 Commercial kit 6894069.0 (60.6 to 76.3)696053.5 (44.9 to 61.9)913870.5 (62.2 to 77.7)
 Commercial kit 7626748.1 (39.6 to 56.6)735656.6 (48.0 to 64.8)745556.9 (47.8 to 65.5)
 Commercial kit 8795160.8 (52.2 to 68.7)735756.5 (47.6 to 64.4)805061.5 (53.0 to 69.0)
 Commercial kit 9794265.3 (56.5 to 73.2)774463.6 (54.8 to 71.7)794265.3 (56.5 to 73.2)
 Commercial kit 10------873969.0 (60.5 to 76.5)
Liu29345637.8 (28.5 to 48.1)751583.3 (74.3 to 89.6)771385.6 (76.8 to 91.4)
Cassaniti15:         
 Hospital admission group25583.3 (66.4 to 92.7)24680.0 (62.7 to90.5)25583.3 (66.4 to 92.7)
 Triage group------73118.4 (9.2 to 33.4)
Lou3071988.8 (80.0 to 94.0)691186.2 (77.0 to 92.1)   
Hoffman5320969.0 (50.8 to 82.7)27293.1 (78.0 to 98.1)   
Chen35-  70100 (64.6 to 100)   
Zhang32------1061686.9 (79.8 to 91.4)
Paradiso43------214930.7 (20.5 to 41.5)
Adams49:         
 Commercial kit 1------181554.5 (38.0 to 70.2)
 Commercial kit 2------231560.5 (44.7 to 74.4)
 Commercial kit 3------211263.6 (46.6 to 77.8)
 Commercial kit 4------251267.6 (51.5 to 80.4)
 Commercial kit 5------191261.3 (43.8 to 76.3)
 Commercial kit 6------201164.5 (46.9 to 78.9)
 Commercial kit 7------231069.7 (52.7 to 82.6)
 Commercial kit 8------181456.2 (39.3 to 71.8)
 Commercial kit 9------221855.0 (39.8 to 69.3)
Lassauniere51:         
 Commercial kit 1------27390.0 (74.4 to 96.5)
 Commercial kit 2------27390.0 (74.4 to 96.5)
 Commercial kit 3------28293.3 (78.7 to 98.2)
 Commercial kit 4------25583.3 (66.4 to 92.7)
 Commercial kit 5------4180.0 (37.6 to 96.4)
 Commercial kit 6------10100 (20.7 to 100)
Dohla54------81436.4 (19.7 to 57.0)
Pooled124171561.8 (50.8 to 71.8)118676464.9 (53.8 to 75.4)181884266.0 (49.3 to 79.3)
CLIA (n=10 arms)
Lin27651482.3 (72.4 to 89.1)651482.3 (72.4 to 89.1)72791.1 (82.8 to 95.6)
Ma47209796.8 (93.5 to 98.4)209796.8 (93.5 to 98.4)215199.5 (97.4 to 100)
Cai2415811857.2 (51.3 to 62.9)1977971.4 (65.8 to 76.4)---
Infantino36441772.1 (59.8 to 81.8)461575.4 (63.3 to 84.5)---
Zhong3846197.9 (88.9 to 99.6)45295.7 (85.8 to 98.8)---
Jin39131448.1 (30.7 to 66.0)24388.9 (71.9 to 96.1)---
Xie4015193.8 (71.7 to 98.9)160100 (80.6 to 100)---
Yangchun451446170.2 (63.7 to 76.1)197896.1 (92.5 to 97.9)---
Qian464327185.9 (82.6 to 88.7)4861796.6 (93.5 to 98.4)---
Lou30691186.2 (77.0 to 92.1)------
Pooled119531584.3 (70.7 to 93.0)128514593.5 (84.9 to 98.1)287897.8 (46.2 to 100)

Ig=immunoglobulin; TP=true positive; FN=false negative; TN=true negative; FP=false positive; ELISA=enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; LFIA=lateral flow immunoassay; CLIA=chemiluminescent immunoassay.

  • * Pooled estimates were calculated using bivariate random effects meta-analysis; as such, they depart from what would be estimated by simple division of numerator by denominator. Supplementary table S4 lists the names of commercial assays.