Table 4

Individual and pooled specificity by serological test method and immunoglobulin class detected*

Method and studiesIgMIgGIgG or IgM
TNFPSpecificity (95% CI)TNFPSpecificity (95% CI)TNFPSpecificity (95% CI)
ELISA (n=13 arms)
Liu181000100 (96.3 to 100)1000100 (96.3 to 100)1000100 (96.3 to 100)
Adams49500100 (93.0 to 100)500100 (92.9 to 100)500100 (92.8 to 100)
Whitman52:         
 Commercial kit155596.9 (92.9 to 100)1421888.8 (82.9 to 92.8)1402087.5 (81.5 to 91.8)
 In-house------152895.0 (90.4 to 97.4)
Liu28------116496.6 (90.1 to 98.4)
Freeman42------515499.2 (98.0 to 99.7)
Zhao20210398.6 (95.9 to 100)195299.0 (96.4 to 99.7)---
Lou303000100 (98.7 to 100)1000100 (96.3 to 100)---
Zhong38299199.7 (98.1 to 100)299199.7 (98.1 to 100)---
Xiang41600100 (94.0 to 100)57395.0 (86.3 to 98.3)---
Perera482070100 (98.7 to 100)204398.6 (95.8 to 100%---
Guo172850100 (99.0 to 100)------
Lassauniere51---79396.3 (89.8 to 98.7)---
Pooled1666999.7 (99.0 to 100)12263098.9 (96.7 to 99.8)10733697.6 (93.2 to 99.4)
LFIA (n=36 arms)
Li231171191.4 (85.3 to 95.1)1771194.1 (89.8 to 96.7)1161290.6 (84.3 to 94.6)
Garcia37450100 (92.1 to 100)450100 (92.1 to 100)450100 (92.1 to 100)
Imai4447197.9 (89.1 to 100)480100 (92.6 to 100)47197.9 (89.1 to100)
Whitman52:         
 Commercial kit 11382186.8 (80.7 to 91.2)151895.0 (90.4 to 97.4)1342584.3 (77.8 to 89.1)
 Commercial kit 2141894.6 (89.8 to 97.3)141895.0 (90.4 to 96.7)1361391.3 (85.6 to 94.8)
 Commercial kit 31441590.6 (85.0 to 94.2)1481193.1 (88.0 to 96.1)1421789.3 (83.5 to 93.2)
 Commercial kit 41293180.6 (73.8 to 86.0)152696.2 (92.0 to 98.2)1293180.6 (73.8 to86.0)
 Commercial kit 5130695.6 (90.7 to 98.0)134298.5 (94.8 to 99.6)129794.9 (89.8 to 97.5)
 Commercial kit 6157398.1 (94.6 to 99.4)158298.8 (95.6 to 100)155596.9 (92.9 to 98.7)
 Commercial kit 71600100 (97.7 to 100)1600100 (97.7 to 100)1600100 (97.7 to 100)
 Commercial kit 8154596.9 (92.9 to 98.6)155497.5 (93.7 to 99.0)154596.9 (92.9 to 98.7)
 Commercial kit 9139993.9 (88.8 to 96.8)143596.7 (95.6 to 99.9)139993.9 (88.8 to 96.8)
 Commercial kit 10------146199.3 (96.2 to 100)
Liu2983693.3 (86.1 to 96.9)82792.1 (84.6 to 96.1)81891.0 (83.3 to 95.4)
Cassaniti15         
Hospital admission group300100 (88.6 to 100)300100 (88.6 to100)300100 (88.6 to 100)
Triage group------11191.7 (64.6 to 98.5)
Lou30205498.1 (95.2 to 99.3)208199.5 (97.3 to 100)---
Hoffman531240100 (97.0 to 100)123199.2 (95.6 to 100)   
Chen35-- 11191.7 (64.6 to 98.5)   
Zhang32------410100 (91.4 to 100)
Paradiso43------1071389.2 (82.3 to 93.6)
Adams49:         
 Commercial kit 1      600100 (94.0 to 100)
 Commercial kit 2------90198.9 (94.0 to 100)
 Commercial kit 3------58296.7 (89.6 to 99.1)
 Commercial kit 4------59296.7 (89.6 to99.1)
 Commercial kit 5------58296.7 (89.6 to 99.1)
 Commercial kit 6------59198.3 (91.1 to 100)
 Commercial kit 7------57395.0 (86.3 to 98.0)
 Commercial kit 8------600100 (94.0 to 100)
 Commercial kit 9------138497.2 (93.0 to 98.9)
Lassauniere51:         
 Commercial kit 1------320100 (89.3 to 100)
 Commercial kit 2------320100 (89.3 to 100)
 Commercial kit 3------320100 (89.3 to 100)
 Commercial kit 4------170100 (81.6 to 100)
 Commercial kit 5------12380 (54.8 to 93.0)
 Commercial kit 6------13286.7 (62.1 to 96.3)
Dohla54---- -24388.9 (71.9 to 96.1)
Pooled194312096.6 (93.8 to 98.4)20556697.6 (96.2 to 98.8)270317196.6 (94.3 to 98.2)
CLIA (n=10 arms)
Lin27651581.2 (71.3 to 88.3)78297.5 (91.3 to 99.3)641680.0 (70.0 to 87.3)
Ma474463792.3 (89.6 to 94.4)482199.8 (98.8 to 100)4830100 (99.2 to 100)
Cai241670100 (97.8 to100)1670100 (97.8 to 100)---
Infantino3660493.8 (85.0 to 97.5)640100 (94.3 to 100)---
Zhong382861495.3 (92.3 to 97.2)2901096.7 (94.0 to 98.2)---
Jin39330100 (89.4 to 100)30390.9 (76.4 to 96.9)---
Xie4063415.0 (7.1 to 29.1)0400.0 (0.0 to 8.8)---
Yangchun4576396.2 (89.4 to 98.7)73692.4 (84.4 to 96)---
Qian4615292998.1 (97.3 to 98.7)15283098.1 (97.3 to 98.6)---
Lou30298299.3 (97.6 to100)------
Pooled296613896.6 (84.7 to 99.5)27129297.8 (62.9 to 99.9)54716Not estimable

Ig=immunoglobulin; TP=true positive; FN-false negative; TN=true negative; FP=false positive; ELISA=enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; LFIA=lateral flow immunoassay; CLIA=chemiluminescent immunoassay.

  • * Pooled estimates were calculated using bivariate random effects meta-analysis; as such, they depart from what would be estimated by simple division of numerator by denominator. Supplementary table S4 lists the names of commercial assays.