Table 2

Clinical content of international guidelines produced in early covid-19 pandemic

GuidelinesBasic resuscitationVTE, DVT prophylaxisInfection and IPCAdvanced resuscitationAvoid*Other
Fluid resuscitationSupplemental oxygenNutritionSymptom control, including NSAIDsIPCEmpirical antibioticsAntiviral therapyIntubation and ventilationRRTVasopressors and inotropesSteroidsNIV
WHO9XXXXXXXXX
Brazil10XXXXXXXX
China5XXXXXXXXTraditional Chinese medicine
France11XXXXXX
Germany12XXXXXX
Netherlands26X
India14XXXXXXXXXEarly prone positioning
Indonesia13XXXXXXXX
Italy15XXXX
Japan16XX
Malaysia17XXX
Russia18XXXXXXX
Saudi Arabia19X
South Korea20XX
Spain21XXXXXXXXXXEarly prone positioning
Taiwan22XXXXXXXX
Turkey23XXXXX
US CDC24XXXXXXX

CDC=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; DVT=deep venous thrombosis; IPC=infection prevention and control; NIV=non-invasive ventilation; NSAID=non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; RRT=renal replacement therapy; VTE=venous thromboembolism; WHO=World Health Organization.

  • * Guidelines specifically recommend against particular intervention.

  • Provides no original supportive care guidelines; refers user directly to WHO clinical guidelines and Surviving Sepsis.

  • Focus of guidelines was on antiviral drugs.