Table 2

Associations of use of fish oil supplements with the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and all cause mortality. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise

OutcomesFish oil non-users (n=294 240)Fish oil users (n=133 438)Model 1*Model 2†
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
All cause mortality8781 (3.0)4147 (3.1)0.83 (0.80 to 0.86)<0.0010.87 (0.83 to 0.90)<0.001
Cardiovascular mortality2274 (0.8)1008 (0.8)0.77 (0.72 to 0.83)<0.0010.84 (0.78 to 0.91)<0.001
Myocardial infarction mortality1017 (0.3)406 (0.3)0.73 (0.65 to 0.81)<0.0010.80 (0.70 to 0.91)<0.001
Stroke mortality441 (0.2)223 (0.2)0.83 (0.71 to 0.98)0.030.87 (0.73 to 1.04)0.14
Cardiovascular events12 388 (4.2)5909 (4.4)0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)<0.0010.93 (0.90 to 0.96)<0.001
Myocardial infarction5306 (1.8)2448 (1.8)0.86 (0.82 to 0.90)<0.0010.92 (0.88 to 0.96)<0.001
Stroke2680 (0.9)1329 (1.0)0.88 (0.82 to 0.94)<0.0010.90 (0.84 to 0.97)0.01

HR=hazard ratio.

  • * Model 1: adjusted for age and sex.

  • Model 2: included model 1 variables and additionally the Townsend Deprivation Index, assessment centre (22 categories), ethnicity (white, black, Asian, Chinese, mixed, or other ethnic group), household income (<£18 000 (€21 489; $23 253), £18 000-£30 999, £31 000-£51 999, £52 000-£100 000, or >£100 000), body mass index, fruit consumption (<2.0, 2.0-3.9, or ≥4.0 servings/day), vegetable consumption (<2.0, 2.0-3.9, or ≥4.0 servings/day), oily fish consumption (<2 or ≥2 times/week), smoking status (never, former, or current), alcohol consumption (never, 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 times/week), physical activity (<150 or ≥150 min/week), diabetes (yes or no), hypertension (yes or no), longstanding illness (yes or no), antihypertensive drug use (yes or no), statin use (yes or no), insulin treatment use (yes or no), aspirin use (yes or no), vitamin supplementation (yes or no), and mineral and other dietary supplementation (yes or no).