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Heat Losses from a Breathing System with a Heated-water Humidifier

Br Med J 1971; 4 doi: (Published 11 December 1971) Cite this as: Br Med J 1971;4:653
  1. J. N. Lunn,
  2. W. W. Mapleson,
  3. E. K. Hillard


    Air was “breathed” in the laboratory through a heated-water humidifier and a breathing tube. Several different humidifiers and tubes were used. The temperature rise of the air on passing through the humidifier and the temperature drop on passing through the tube were measured. Both were dependent on ventilation. Insulating the tube and humidifier together with the insertion of baffles in the latter reduced the rise and fall and their dependence on ventilation. With suitable design the dependence on ventilation and the need to use high water temperatures could be greatly reduced. In addition, a thermostat with a reduced dead zone is needed.