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Letters Ultra-processed foods and adverse health outcomes

Ultra-processed foods and adverse health outcomes: other approaches and evidence needed to prove genuine causal effect

BMJ 2024; 384 doi: (Published 26 March 2024) Cite this as: BMJ 2024;384:q747
  1. Marcus Munafò, professor of biological psychology and MRC investigator
  1. School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
  1. marcus.munafo{at}

The association between consumption of ultra-processed food and adverse health outcomes seems to be established.1 As with most observational epidemiology, however, the key question is whether this reflects a causal relation. To do this, we need to go beyond ever larger studies, …

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