Intended for healthcare professionals

Letters Ethnic inequalities in health and care

Ethnic inequalities in how care is given, not just in access and outcomes

BMJ 2023; 382 doi: (Published 11 July 2023) Cite this as: BMJ 2023;382:p1589
  1. James H Bamber, consultant anaesthetist1,
  2. Dominique N Lucas, consultant anaesthetist2
  1. 1Department of Anaesthesia, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK
  2. 2Department of Anaesthesia, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, UK
  1. james.bamber1{at}

Ethnic inequalities in health and care show diversity in need and disadvantage,1 as well as how healthcare is provided, once accessed.

We recently published a study of ethnic inequalities for anaesthetic care provided in maternity services in England between 2011 and 2021.2 We found that for elective caesarean birth, women from black …

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