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Beverages and health outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes

BMJ 2023; 381 doi: (Published 19 April 2023) Cite this as: BMJ 2023;381:p841

Linked Research

Beverage consumption and mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes

  1. Nita G Forouhi, professor and programme leader
  1. Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
  1. nita.forouhi{at}

Choice of beverage is linked to risk of cardiovascular disease and death

Evidence for a substantial global burden of disease and deaths attributable to diet and nutrition is compelling.1 For people with type 2 diabetes, the case for diet as a modifiable factor for prevention, management, or remission is strong.2 But diet is a complex set of factors that includes overall dietary patterns, food groups, and individual foods and beverages from which nutrients are derived. A case in point is whether the consumption of different types of beverages is relevant for adults with type 2 diabetes.

In a linked paper, Ma and colleagues related the consumption of various beverages with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults with type 2 diabetes3 (doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-073406). Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, they analysed associations between the consumption of eight different beverage types and new CVD events and deaths among 15 486 adults with type 2 diabetes, followed-up for an average of 18.5 years. Their results reveal three layers of information.

Firstly, the beverages had varying associations with total mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes. Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a 20% relative increase in all cause mortality, whereas higher consumption of coffee, tea, plain water, …

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