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I wonder if the authors considered another way of analysing their data in consideration of equity in access to healthcare.
Between 10-20% of New York City residents are uninsured for healthcare; uninsured rates among Hispanic people are at least 3x those who self identify as non-Hispanic white people.
As a result, it may be possible that there are racial differences in the advanced stage of COVID-19 requiring admission due to unwillingness to present for healthcare attention from the lack of healthcare coverage, including calling for an ambulance. Similarly the academic background of the medical center may also result in a skewed delayed presentation of insured patients compared to other hospitals as ambulances may have been directed to distribute patients according to their insurance status.
While not a fatal flaw in this study, the insurance status of patients may assist in understanding the equity issues and variation by ethnicity (if any), thereby giving some context to how the data can be viewed, and perhaps reframed.