A mini review: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a grave threat to health worldwide—A serious concern
Modern medicine will effectively be lost if the government fails to take concrete action within six months to tackle antimicrobial resistance (1). The author raised an alarm well in time for the awareness of all scientists and medical professionals all over the world.
The medicines against antimicrobial resistant super bugs are ineffective, and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others. Moreover, indiscriminate use, misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this life threatening process.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as a fundamental threat to global health security, as well as a threat to meeting and maintaining international development goals (2)
Key facts from WHO fact sheet (15th Feb 2018):
• Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi.
• AMR is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society.
• Without effective antibiotics, the success of major surgery and cancer chemotherapy would be compromised.
• The cost of health care for patients with resistant infections is higher than care for patients with non-resistant infections due to longer duration of illness, additional tests and use of more expensive drugs.
• In 2016, 490 000 people developed multi-drug resistant TB globally, and drug resistance is starting to complicate the fight against HIV and malaria, as well. (3).
Conclusion: A well-coordinated survey and well supervised action plan is urgently required to combat superbugs in developed and developing countries. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a grave threat to human health and economic development . Countries are at different stages in responding to the growing threat posed by AMR.
Fortunately, WHO is providing technical assistance to help countries develop their national action plans, and strengthen their health and surveillance systems so that they can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. (3)
A joint initiative of WHO and Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), Global Antibiotic Research and Development programme (GARDP) encourages research and development through public-private partnerships (3).
1. O’Dowd A. Tackling antimicrobial resistance should be “top five” priority for UK government, MPs urge. BMJ 2018; 363 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4444 (22 October 2018) Cite this as: BMJ 2018; 363: k4444 https://www.bmj.com/content/363/bmj.k4444)
2. L Tsegaye l, et al.,How is an international public health threat advanced in Canada? The case of antimicrobial resistance.. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2016;42(11):223-226. Published 2016 Nov 3.
3. Antimicrobial resistance - World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance.
4. Tripartite. (2018) Monitoring global progress on antimicrobial resistance. Publisher: WHO, FAO, OIE ISBN: 978-92-5-130800-4. http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/CA0486EN/
Competing interests: No competing interests