Prevalence of diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes among US adults in 2016 and 2017: population based studyBMJ 2018; 362 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k1497 (Published 04 September 2018) Cite this as: BMJ 2018;362:k1497
- Guifeng Xu, doctoral student1,
- Buyun Liu, postdoctoral research scholar1,
- Yangbo Sun, postdoctoral research scholar1,
- Yang Du, doctoral student1,
- Linda G Snetselaar, professor1,
- Frank B Hu, professor234,
- Wei Bao, assistant professor156
- 1Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
- 2Department of Nutrition, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
- 3Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
- 4Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
- 5Obesity Research and Education Initiative, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
- 6Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
- Correspondence to: W Bao
- Accepted 27 August 2018
Objective To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed total diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes in the US general population and the proportions of each among US adults with a diagnosis of diabetes.
Design Nationwide, population based, cross sectional survey.
Setting National Health Interview Survey, 2016 and 2017.
Participants Adults aged 20 years or older (n=58 186), as a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population.
Main outcome measures Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes in the US general population, and the proportions of each subtype in participants with a diagnosis of diabetes.
Results Among the 58 186 included adults, 6317 had received a diagnosis of diabetes. The weighted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes among US adults was 9.7% (95% confidence interval 9.4% to 10.0%), 0.5% (0.5% to 0.6%), and 8.5% (8.2% to 8.8%), respectively. Type 1 diabetes was more prevalent among adults with lower education level, and type 2 diabetes was more prevalent among older adults, men, and those with lower educational level, lower family income level, and higher body mass index (BMI). Among adults with a diagnosis of diabetes, the weighted percentage of type 1 and type 2 diabetes was 5.6% (4.9% to 6.4%) and 91.2% (90.4% to 92.1%), respectively. The percentage of type 1 diabetes was higher among younger adults (age 20-44 years), non-Hispanic white people, those with higher education level, and those with lower BMI, whereas the percentage of type 2 diabetes was higher among older adults (age ≥65 years), non-Hispanic Asians, those with lower education level, and those with higher BMI.
Conclusion This study provided benchmark estimates on the national prevalence of diagnosed type 1 diabetes (0.5%) and type 2 diabetes (8.5%) among US adults. Among US adults with diagnosed diabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes accounted for 5.6% and 91.2%, respectively.
Contributors: WB and GX contributed to the study design. GX analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the results and revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content and approved the final version of the manuscript. WB and GX are guarantors.
Funding: This work was partly supported by a research grant from the National Institutes of Health (R21 HD091458).
Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.
Ethical approval: The University of Iowa institutional review board determined that the current study was exempt for ethical approval owing to the use of deidentified data.
Data sharing: No additional data available.
Transparency: The lead author (WB) affirms that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported; that no important aspects of the study have been omitted.
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