Intended for healthcare professionals

CCBYNC Open access
Practice Rapid Recommendations

Transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement for patients with severe, symptomatic, aortic stenosis at low to intermediate surgical risk: a clinical practice guideline

BMJ 2016; 354 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i5085 (Published 28 September 2016) Cite this as: BMJ 2016;354:i5085
Choice of intervention for those with severe aortic stenosis Recommendations or Transcatheter aortic valve implantation Transfemoral TAVI Surgical aortic valve replacement SAVR Open-heart surgery, to remove the narrowed aortic valve. Replacement with tissue valve. Inserting a new valve into the aortic valve’s place without open heart surgery. Delivery is through the femoral artery. Population Favours TAVI Favours SAVR

Age 85+ Why? Strong Benefits outweigh harms for almost everyone.All or nearly all informed patients would likely want this option.

Comparison of benefits and harms Events per 1000 people – within 2 years Length of hospital stay Quality of evidence Favourstransfemoral TAVI Favours SAVR The uncertainty around long-term durability of TAVI valves is not likely to concern those over 85. These older patients are also likely to place a high value on avoiding open heart surgery. TAVI is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to SAVR for patients at low to moderate perioperative risk, but we have not identified any cost-effectiveness analyses to support this. Preferences and values Resourcing Only centres with sufficient expertise and an established TAVI team with experienced general and interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons should offer TAVI. Other Deaths Moderate / severe heart failure Strokes Life-threatening bleeds New onset atrial fibrillation Median days in hospital Pacemaker insertions Aortic valve reinterventions Aortic valve reinterventions 197 45 fewer 20 fewer 252 fewer 178 fewer 79 10 226 161 134 87 8 242 Events per 1000 people – within 10 years 226 99 3 92 413 312 69 12 7 fewer 134 fewer 18 fewer 4 fewer 92 134 fewer Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Very low Very low quality evidence Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. See all 14 outcomes

Age 75–84 Why? Weak Benefits outweigh harms for the majority, but not for everyone. The majority of patients would likely want this option.

Comparison of benefits and harms Events per 1000 people – within 2 years Length of hospital stay Quality of evidence Favourstransfemoral TAVI Favours SAVR People who wish to avoid open-heart surgery are likely to favour TAVI. People who place more value on avoiding a second aortic valve placement are likely to choose surgery. Preferences and values Resourcing Only centres with sufficient expertise and an established TAVI team with experienced general and interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons should offer TAVI. Other Deaths Moderate Moderate / severe heart failure Strokes Life-threatening bleeds New onset atrial fibrillation Median days in hospital Pacemaker insertions Aortic valve reinterventions 122 30 fewer 20 fewer 252 fewer 178 fewer 79 10 226 161 134 87 8 152 Events per 1000 people – within 10 years Aortic valve reinterventions Very low 198 99 3 92 413 312 69 12 7 fewer 134 fewer 18 fewer 4 fewer 61 137 fewer Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. Very low Very low quality evidence Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. See all 14 outcomes TAVI is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to SAVR for patients at low to moderate perioperative risk, but we have not identified any cost-effectiveness analyses to support this.

Age 65–74 Why? Weak Benefits outweigh harms for the majority, but not for everyone. The majority of patients would likely want this option.

Comparison of benefits and harms Events per 1000 people – within 2 years Length of hospital stay Quality of evidence Favourstransfemoral TAVI Favours SAVR People who wish to avoid open-heart surgery are likely to favour TAVI. People who place more value on avoiding a second aortic valve placement are likely to choose surgery. Preferences and values Resourcing Only centres with sufficient expertise and an established TAVI team with experienced general and interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons should offer TAVI. Other Deaths Moderate / severe heart failure Strokes Life-threatening bleeds New onset atrial fibrillation Median days in hospital Pacemaker insertions Aortic valve reinterventions 73 19 fewer 14 fewer 252 fewer 178 fewer 56 10 226 161 134 87 8 92 Events per 1000 people – within 10 years Aortic valve reinterventions Very low 198 70 3 92 413 312 69 12 7 fewer 134 fewer 18 fewer 4 fewer 61 137 fewer Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Very low Very low quality evidence Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. See all 14 outcomes TAVI is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to SAVR for patients at low to moderate perioperative risk, but we have not identified any cost-effectiveness analyses to support this.

Age under 65 Why? Strong Benefits outweigh harms for almost everyone.All or nearly all informed patients would likely want this option.

Comparison of benefits and harms Events per 1000 people – within 2 years Length of hospital stay Quality of evidence FavoursTransfemoral TAVI Favours SAVR Since durability of TAVI valves is unknown, younger people may place a high value on avoiding a second aortic valve placement. Preferences and values Resourcing Only centres with sufficient expertise and an established TAVI team with experienced general and interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons should offer TAVI. Other Deaths Moderate / severe heart failure Strokes Life-threatening bleeds New onset atrial fibrillation Median days in hospital Pacemaker insertions Aortic valve reinterventions 57 15 fewer 10 fewer 252 fewer 57 fewer 40 10 226 161 43 87 8 72 Events per 1000 people – within 10 years Aortic valve reinterventions 198 50 3 92 413 100 69 12 7 fewer 134 fewer 18 fewer 4 fewer 61 137 fewer Low Low quality evidence We have only low confidence in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very likely to have an important impact, which is likely to change the estimate of effect. Low Low quality evidence We have only low confidence in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very likely to have an important impact, which is likely to change the estimate of effect. Low Low quality evidence We have only low confidence in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very likely to have an important impact, which is likely to change the estimate of effect. Low Low quality evidence We have only low confidence in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very likely to have an important impact, which is likely to change the estimate of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Low Low quality evidence We have only low confidence in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very likely to have an important impact, which is likely to change the estimate of effect. Very low Very low quality evidence Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. See all 14 outcomes TAVI is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to SAVR for patients at low to moderate perioperative risk, but we have not identified any cost-effectiveness analyses to support this.
Key uncertainties The major uncertainty is the durability of TAVI valves which drives recommendations in favour of SAVR in younger patients.
Choice of intervention for people with severe aortic stenosiswho are unsuitable for TAVI by transfemoral approach Recommendations or Open-heart surgery, to remove the narrowed aortic valve. Replacement with tissue valve. A more direct delivery of the new valve, through the 6th or 5th intercostal space, into the the left ventricle. Population Favours TAVI Favours SAVR Transcatheter aortic valve implantation Transapical TAVI Surgical aortic valve replacement SAVR

All ages Why? Strong Benefits outweigh harms for almost everyone.All or nearly all informed patients would likely want this option.

Comparison of benefits and harms Events per 1000 people – within 2 years Length of hospital stay Quality of evidence Favourstransapical TAVI Favours SAVR Patients are likely to place a high value on the reduced risk of deaths and stroke with SAVR. There is also more certainty around the durability of valves used. Surgery is likely to constitute a cost-effective alternative to transapical TAVI, but we have not identified any cost-effectiveness analyses to support this. Preferences and values Resourcing Only centres with sufficient expertise and an established TAVI team with experienced general and interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons should offer TAVI. Other Deaths Moderate Moderate / severe heart failure Strokes Life-threatening bleeds New onset atrial fibrillation Median days in hospital Pacemaker insertions Aortic valve reinterventions 253 194 fewer 178 fewer 112 10 226 219 134 87 8 Events per 1000 people – within 10 years Aortic valve reinterventions 198 3 92 413 312 69 12 7 fewer 134 fewer 18 fewer 4 fewer 61 137 fewer 57 fewer 45 fewer 196 67 Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Low Low quality evidence We have only low confidence in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very likely to have an important impact, which is likely to change the estimate of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. High High quality evidence We are very confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research is very unlikely to change the estimates of effect. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. Very low Very low quality evidence Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Moderate Moderate quality evidence We are moderately confident in the evidence supporting the recommendation. Further research could have an important impact, which may change the estimates of effect. See all 14 outcomes

©BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

Disclaimer: This infographic is not a validated clinical decision aid. This information is provided without any representations, conditions or warranties that it is accurate or up to date. BMJ and its licensors assume no responsibility for any aspect of treatment administered with the aid of this information. Any reliance placed on this information is strictly at the user's own risk. For the full disclaimer wording see BMJ's terms and conditions: https://www.bmj.com/company/legal-information/

Find recommendations, evidence summaries and consultation decision aids for use in your practice
Author Information

Please note:
  • Rapid responses are electronic comments to the editor. They are not journal articles. The BMJ reserves the right to remove responses which are being wilfully misrepresented as published articles.
  • Your name will be published with your response. Include your email address in the text of your response if you want others to see it.
  • Once published, you will not have the right to remove or edit your response. The BMJ may remove or edit responses at its absolute discretion.
  • A proportion of responses will, after editing, be published online and in the print journal as letters, which are indexed in PubMed. Rapid responses are not indexed in PubMed
  • Rapid responses have their own URL and are retrievable in an advanced search of thebmj.com in perpetuity.
  • If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patient's written consent to publication before sending your response. See our patient consent form.
  • By submitting this rapid response your are agreeing to our full rapid response requirements.
  • Please do not include original data in your response, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you are able to include a reference.

Note: this will be visible to readers on the site. Please only include information you are comfortable with being published.

Statement of Competing Interests

A competing interest exists when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients' welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain or personal rivalry). Find out more.

Compose eLetter

Plain text

  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Terms and Conditions

Read terms and conditions

Vertical Tabs