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Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis

BMJ 2016; 352 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i939 (Published 15 March 2016) Cite this as: BMJ 2016;352:i939

A potent, broad spectrum herbal antibiotic substance

Essential oil of Origanum vulgaris(oregano), containing high quantities of carvacrol, exhibits broad spectrum bactericidal activity, even against antibiotic-resistant strains. [10][22][27][39]
Oregano oil was demonstrated extremely bactericidal against Shigella[1], Escherichia coli O157:H7 [1][2][4][8][13][14][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][24][25][26][27][31][33][35][38][41][50], Listeria monocytogenes[2][8][11][12][13][14][15][17][20][24][25][38][41], Campylobacter jejuni[3][24], Helicobacter pylori[34], Pseudomonas aeruginosa[7][10][12][13][14][17][25][29][31][35][36][50], Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus kristinae, Micrococcus lylae, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus varians, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus macerans[9][27], Bacillus subtilis[9][29][31], Bacillus cereus[9][14][17][22], Yersinia enterocolitica[15][17][25][27], Enterococcus faecalis[17], Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens[23], Morganella morganii[27][39], Proteus vulgaris[27][35], Proteus mirabilis[31][39], Staphylococcus epidermidis[30][31], Staphylococcus aureus (even MRSA clinic isolates)[2][4][5][7][9][13][17][20][22][25][27][30][31][38][41], Enterobacter cloacae[31][35], Borrelia burgdorferi[32], Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens[35][39], Mycoplasma hominis[44], Mycobacterium tuberculosis[37], Salmonella enterica (even Salmonella Typhimurium serovar) [1][2][4][8][13][17][18][20][21][24][31][35][38][41].
Oregano essential oil is bactericidal even when applied externally. [42][43]
Furthermore, oregano oil has acaricidal[45], insecticidal[46][47], herbicidal[47], antimalarial[48], anti-vibrionic[6], anti-Echinococcus[49] and anti-protozoan properties[40].
No bacterial resistance has ever been created.
Further research on this amazing natural substance is needed, in order to cope with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance and improve paediatric therapeutic outcomes.
References
[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324049
[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23317422
[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23049787
[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22064737
[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21968667
[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638331
[7] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19921329
[8] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895486
[9] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19783523
[10] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19716146
[11] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19610331
[12] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171255
[13] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18810868
[14] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378032
[15] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044446
[16] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17526792
[17] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488023
[18] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066914
[19] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16919909
[20] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612826
[21] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15366861
[22] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330549
[23] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14717375
[24] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12380738
[25] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11456186
[26] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736000
[27] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20835958
[28] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291749
[29] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22164795
[30] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903378
[31] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21030907
[32] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432627
[33] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20153068
[34] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769000
[35] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471191
[36] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17897196
[37] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19753839
[38] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23317422
[39] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22827568
[40] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22309702
[41] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21314366
[42] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130859
[43] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514796
[44] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128812
[45] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21845941
[46] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20578885
[47] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18513954
[48] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535822
[49] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650960
[50] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4804097/

Competing interests: No competing interests

28 November 2016
Stavros Saripanidis
Consultant in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Private Clinic
Thessaloniki, Greece